Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Precision Guided Munitions :: Weapons Guns Gun Essays Reseach Papers

Precision Guided Munitions During the Persian Gulf War of 1991 a new class of weapons made its debut and presaged a revolution in military affairs. Although precision-guided munitions (PGMs), ranging from laser-guided bombs to Tomahawk cruise missiles, represented only a fraction of the total ordinance used in Iraq, the effect they had was electric. The television footage of a bomb dropped from more than 6 miles above descending onto its target and hitting with absolute precision was at once fascinating and jarring. The Gulf War demonstrated the power that precision aerial attacks possessed. The accuracy and lethality of air launched munitions during the Gulf war was in sharp contrast to the relative crudity of aerial bombing during World War II. In Iraq and later in Kosovo, precision-guided munitions (PGM) demonstrated their capabilities. The US waged a type of warfare in these campaigns that was markedly different from World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. The US is still coming to grips with the implications of the new type of warfare it has released. The development of accurate precision-guided munitions was not revolutionary, but an evolutionary process that took the course of half a century. Today most precision-guided munitions can be classified by their guidance or propulsion systems. Precision-guided munitions affect the military in three areas. First precision-guided munitions have challenged time-honored traditions of mass. Second, precision-guided munitions have unique information needs. Finally, the capabilities of precision-guided munitions have significant implications on acquisitions policy. Regardless of whether or not precision-guided munitions are part of a larger revolution in military, the implic ations of precision-guided munitions for the US military are significant. Historical Evolution of Accuracy Ever since man first threw stones at their fellow men, the elusive goal of killing one’s opponent from a distance, with absolute precision has been a holy grail of warfare. Weapons such as bows and arrows, rifles, and artillery, were all designed for increased lethality at longer distances, with less risk to the operator. PGMs provide just that capability; that is the capability to put ordinance on target with precision at long ranges. Precision has always played a role in warfare. Whether it was marksmanship with bow or rifle, the ability to place a projectile on target contributed greatly to victory. PGMs were designed with just that function in mind.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Digital voltmeter using 8051 microcontroller Essay

Voltmeter using 8051 microcontroller.  Automatic railway gate control 8051 microcontroller use   adminOctober – 4 – 20127 CommentsVoltmeter using 8051.  A simple 0-5V voltmeter using 8051 is shown in this article. This digital voltmeter has a sensitivity of 200mV which is a bit low but this project is meant for demonstrating how an ADC and seven segment display can be interfaced to 8051 to obtain a digital readout of the input voltage. A 31/2 digit high end voltmeter will be added soon. ADC0804 is the ADC and AT89S51 is the controller used in this project. Before attempting this project, go through these projects Interfacing ADC to 8051 and Interfacing seven segment display to 8051 which will give you a good idea on the basics. Circuit diagram. 0-5 digital voltmeter using 8051 About the circuit.  In the circuit Vref/2 (pin9) of the ADC is left open and it means that the input voltage span can be o to 5V and the step size will be 5/255 = 19.6mV. The equation for the digital output of ADC0804 is Dout = Vin/Step size. In this circuit, for an input voltage of 1V the digital output will be 1/19.6mV = 51 and so the binary equivalent of 51 ie 00110011. Digital output of the ADC is interfaced to P1.0 of the microcontroller. Control signals for the ADC ie CS, RD, WR and INTR are available from the P3.7, P3.6, P3.5 and P3.4 pins of the microcontroller respectively. 2 digit multiplexed seven segment display is interfaced to Port0 of the microcontroller. Control signals for the display driver transistors Q1 and Q2 are obtained from P3.2 and P3.1 of the microcontroller. Push button switch S1, capacitor C2 and resistor R10 forms a debouncing reset circuitry. Program. ORG 00H MOV P1,#11111111B MOV P0,#00000000B MOV P3,#00000000B MOV DPTR,#LABEL MAIN: CLR P3.7 SETB P3.6 CLR P3.5 SETB P3.5 WAIT: JB P3.4,WAIT CLR P3.7 CLR P3.6 MOV A,P1 MOV B,#10D DIV AB MOV B,#2D MUL AB MOV B,#10D DIV AB SETB P3.2 ACALL DISPLAY MOV P0,A ACALL DELAY MOV P0,#10000000B ACALL DELAY MOV A,B CLR P3.2 SETB P3.1 ACALL DISPLAY MOV P0,A ACALL DELAY CLR P3.1 SJMP MAIN DELAY: MOV R3,#02H DEL1: MOV R2,#0FAH DEL2: DJNZ R2,DEL2 DJNZ R3,DEL1 RET DISPLAY: MOVC A,@A+DPTR RET LABEL: DB 3FH DB 06H DB 5BH DB 4FH DB 66H DB 6DH DB 7DH DB 07H DB 7FH DB 6FH END About the program. At first the program controls the ADC to produce a digital output corresponding to the input voltage.This digital output is scanned through P1.0 and is loaded to accumulator. Then the value in the accumulator is divided by 10 to omit the last digit. For example, let the input voltage be 4V. Then the corresponding digital output of the ADC will be 204D (D stands for decimal) .After the the division by 10, the value left in the accumulator will be 20D. This 20D is then multiplied by 2D which results in 40D. The next target of the program is to manipulate this 40D and make a 4.0 readout on the display. For this the 40D is again divided by 10D . This results in 4 inside accumulator and 0 inside B register. Then the program gets the digit drive pattern for 4 using the lookup table , puts this pattern on Port 0 and activates Q1. After 1 ms delay 10000000B is loaded to P0 and this accounts for the dot. After a further 1ms delay Q1 is deactivated, content in B (ie 0) is moved to A, gets the correct digit drive pattern for 0 using the lookup table, puts this pattern on Port 0 and activates Q2. After a further 1ms delay Q2 is deactivated and the entire cycle is repeated. 8051 Microcontroller Projects & Circuits  adminFebruary – 1 – 20138 CommentsIn this article we are listing all the projects and circuits we have developed using the 8051 micro controller. We have tested all of these projects in our lab and verified the working . All  these projects are made to solve a real world requirement or problem. Engineering students & other diploma students will find these projects useful for their mini project and main project requirements. All the 8051 projects listed below are made using the 8051 compliant microcontroller from Atmel – AT89S51. We have given the correct circuit diagram, working and software code (in assembly language) for each and every project. You can use all of them freely for your project & learning requirements. In case you are using a controller other than AT89S51 – please be sure to check the hardware of your controller and compare it with that of AT89S51. This is necessary because we have developed all the software in assembly language. If you are not that good at assembly language, you can convert the software into C language & use it with any compliant 8051 controller. Image Source 1. Ultrasonic Range Finder using 8051 – This project as the name says, is an application to measure distance of an object. It uses an ultrasonic transducer module HC-SR04 to measure the distance and the controller AT89S51 to make the necessary processing. This project can be used to make applications like Automotive parking sensor, Obstacle warning systems, Terrain monitoring robots etc. This ultrasonic range finder can measure distances upto 2.5 meters with an accuracy of 1 cm. 2. Digital Tachometer using 8051 – This project is a digital tachometer which can be used to measure the revolutions per second of any object like a rotating wheel or a disc or a shaft. This application built using 8051 micro controller can measure upto 255 revolutions/second with an accuracy of 1 rev/sec. This application has 3 important sections – 1) is the optical pickup designed to pick the revolutions of the object using a photo transistor and LED. 2) is the processing stage designed using 8051 and the associated software 3) is the display section using 7 segment displays. 3. Water Level Controller using 8051 – This is one of the most popular  project we have published using 8051 controller. This water level controller monitors the level of the over head tank and automatically switches on the water pump when ever the level goes below a preset limit. The level of the over head tank is indicated using 5 leds and the pump is switched of when the over head tank is filled. We have given an illustrated circuit diagram with working explained in detail. You will also find the software codes written in assemble language. 4. Voltmeter using 8051 – We all must have used a multimeter from our young days. Have you ever bothered to create one ? So here is one such an interesting project. A Voltmeter using 8051 micro controller. Even though its quiet simple and an easy to make one, you shall find it really interesting. This can be used as an application at the mini project level for engineering and diploma students. This digital voltmeter can measure 0 to 5 volts and has a sensitivity of 200mV which is a bit low but this project is meant for demonstrating how an ADC and seven segment display can be interfaced to 8051 to obtain a digital readout of the input voltage. ADC0804 is the ADC and AT89S51 is the controller used in this project. 5. Thermometer using 8051 – This is an interesting project designed to measure temperature using 8051. Its a simple 0-100 °C digital thermometer with 1 °C resolution using 8051. The circuit is based on LM35 analog temperature sensor, ADC0804 and AT89S51 microcontroller. LM35 is an analogue temperature sensor IC which can measure a temperature range of -55 to 150 °C. Its output voltage varies 10mV per  °C change in temperature. Knowledge Resources:- The articles below given are basics on how to work with 8051 micro controller. You can refer them if you come across a road block anywhere! 1. Interfacing 7 segment display to 8051 – A good tutorial on interfacing 7 segment display to 8051 micro controller. 2. Interfacing LCD display to 8051 – Explains how to interface a 16Ãâ€"2 LCD display with 8051 micro controller. 3. Interfacing DC motor to 8051 – Explains how to interface a DC motor with 8051 micro controller. 4. Interfacing push button switch to 8051 – Interfacing LED & Push button switch to 8051 micro controller. 5. Interfacing ADC to 8051 – This articles gives you a good detail on how to interface ADC to 8051 micro controller. ADC 0804 is used to explain the interfacing procedure with an example software routine. 8 channel light chaser using 8051 adminMay – 10 – 201210 Comments6 function 8 channel light chaser using 8051. A 6 function 8 channel light chaser using 8051 is shown here. The hardware and software of this circuit are very simple and the light functions gets repeated one after another automatically. P1.0 to P1.7 of the microcontroller (AT89S51) are assigned as the output pins. Corresponding LEDs are connected to the output pins through 1K current limiting resistors (R1 to R8). The sequence by which the output pins (P1.0 to P1.7) goes high and low is determined by the program and the LEDs follow this sequence. Circuit diagram of the 6 function chaser using 8051 is shown below. 6 function light chaser using 8051 Program. START: MOV A,#80H MOV R7,#07H MOV P1,A LCALL DELAY LABEL1: RR A MOV P1,A LCALL DELAY DJNZ R7,LABEL1 MOV R7,#07H LABEL2: RL A MOV P1,A LCALL DELAY DJNZ R7,LABEL2 MOV P1,#81H LCALL DELAY MOV P1,#42H LCALL DELAY MOV P1,#24H LCALL DELAY MOV P1,#18H LCALL DELAY MOV P1,#0FFH LCALL DELAY MOV P1,#00H LCALL DELAY MOV A,#80H MOV P1,A LCALL DELAY MOV R7,#07H LABEL3: SETB C RRC A MOV P1,A LCALL DELAY DJNZ R7,LABEL3 MOv P1,#00H LCALL DELAY MOV A,#0AAH MOV P1,A LCALL DELAY CPL A MOV P1,A LCALL DELAY LJMP START DELAY: MOV R4,#03H WAIT1: MOV R3,#00H WAIT2: MOV R2,#00H WAIT3: DJNZ R2,WAIT3 DJNZ R3,WAIT2 DJNZ R4,WAIT1 RET END

Friday, December 27, 2019

Automated Teller Machine An Electronic Banking Outlet

AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE Abstract - An automated teller machine, also known as an automatic teller machine that enables the customers of a financial institution to perform financial transactions, particularly cash withdrawal, without the need for a human cashier, clerk. Introduction - An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic banking outlet, which allows customers to complete basic transactions without the aid of a branch representative or teller. Anyone with a credit card or debit card can access most ATMs. The first ATM appeared in London in 1967, and in less than 50 years, ATMs spread around the globe, securing a presence in every major country and even tiny little island nations such as Kiribati and the Federated States of†¦show more content†¦There are two types of ATM installations: on- and off-premises. On-premises ATMs are typically more advanced, multi-function machines that complement a bank branch s capabilities, and are thus more expensive. Off-premises machines are deployed by financial institutions and Independent Sales Organizations (ISOs) where there is a simple need for cash, so they are generally cheaper single function devices. Most ATMs are connected to interbank networks, enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank where they have their accounts or in the countries where their accounts are held (enabling cash withdrawals in local currency). Some examples of interbank networks include NYCE, PULSE, PLUS, Cirrus, AFFN, Interact, Interswitch, STAR, LINK, Mega Link and Banc Net. ATMs rely on authorisation of a financial transaction by the card issuer or other authorising institution on a communications network. This is often performed through an ISO 8583 messaging system. Many banks charge ATM usage fees. In some cases, these fees are charged solely to users who are not customers of the bank where the ATM is installed; in other cases, they apply to all users. An ATM is typically made up of the following devices: CPU (to control the user interface and transaction devices) Magnetic or chip card reader (to identify the customer) PIN pad EEP4 (similar in layout to a touch tone or calculator keypad), manufactured as part of a secureShow MoreRelatedEssay Bank Accounting Information System And Electronic Banking4510 Words   |  19 Pages Bank Accounting Information System And Electronic Banking Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Information technology has had as much impact on our society as the industrial revolution. In the information age, companies are finding that success or failure is increasingly dependent on their management and use of information. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

Effects of Texting While Driving Essay - 1147 Words

A word has started to appear in discussions of driving. The word is distracted. It refers to drivers who pay more attention to their cell phones, or their text messages, than they do to driving. The results can be fatal. One of the most common distractions today is texting. Each day in the United States, 9 people are killed and more than 1,060 people are injured in crashes that are reported to involve a distracted driver (Center). A couple of months ago, I and a friend were sitting at a red light waiting on green. We were talking about making plans for later that evening. We decided what to do as soon as the light turned green, we waited on the car in front of us to ease off the line. Then we were hit. This turned into a five car pileup.†¦show more content†¦Today, texting while driving out numbers the amount of drunk driving according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Texting while driving is six times more likely to cause a wreck than drunk driving. 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While, the punishmentRead MoreThe Epidemic of Texting and Driving Essay1478 Words   |  6 PagesAutomobile crashes as a result of texting while driving is an epidemic that has taken over the nation in the past years. In today’s society, people have become more and more dependent on technology as everyday uses. How many can honestly say that they have text and driven? How many have had to swerve, stop on the brakes or almost gotten into an accident because of it? Texting while driving is the most common thing that almost everyone has done or seen. The main issue and threat is that peopleRead MoreRole Of The Phone Addiction Causes Dangerous Actions Involving The Cell Phone1034 Words   |  5 Pagesespecially texting and driving, puts not only the driver but those around in serious danger. Driving is not an instance where multitasking is good. When drivers are trying to multitask by driving and using their cell phones to text, the risk of an accident significantly jumps due to erratic driving. Even though the dangers are clear when it comes to distracted driving, numerous people still do it. Why? A Fox News article goes into more detail about the psychology of texting and driving. Read MoreThe Dangers Of Texting While Driving1252 Words   |  6 Pagesof driving. Many drivers, across the globe, engage in the practice without contemplating about the potential detrimental effects of their actions. Notably, researches have depicted that texting while driving is one of the major causes of road accidents. As a matter of fact, accidents caused due to messaging while driving has superseded those, which are instigated by drunk drivers. Drivers are inclined to the belief that they can send some messages without negatively impacting on their driving abilitiesRead MorePersuassive Essay on Texting and Driving994 Words   |  4 Pagesblamed on distracted driving and most of the distractions are caused by cell phone usage.† Many drivers today have such busy lives and never have time to get the things they need to do complete in one day’s time. This leaves them to get things done while on the road. Checking emails is a top priority for Americans and since many have Smartphone’s, they will do it on the road as well as send text messages. There are many laws being established to try to prevent distracted driving from happening, althoughRead MoreDangers Of Texting And Driving1361 Words   |  6 Pages Dangers Of Texting and Driving Drivers should not be able to use their hand held cell phones while in a moving vehicle. Too many teens and young adults are being killed each year in texting and driving related accidents. Teens and young adults must be educated about the effects, benefits and laws of texting and driving in order to keep adults and teens safe while driving a vehicle. Cell phones should not be in use inside a vehicle while it is moving. There are a lot of benefitsRead MoreThe New Popular Form Of Communication Among Teenagers1544 Words   |  7 Pagesteenagers. Texting has a long-lasting influence on people and how they communicate with each other. Some researchers are beginning to believe that this simple form of communication can be harmful to those who use it. There are three articles that confront this topic head-on and offer the reader different perspectives: Archana Srinivas, Megan White, and Hatim A. Omar, authors of the scholarly article â€Å"Teens Texting and Consequences: A Brief Review,à ¢â‚¬  Solomon Ali Dansieh, writer of â€Å"SMS Texting and Its

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Poem written Essay Example For Students

Poem written Essay Base Details is a war poem written by Siegfried Sassoon in 1918. The year of 1918 was a crucial one in the First World War, and Base Details seeks to explore some of the bitterness and cruelty of the war era, expressed from the point of view of a common soldier.  The poem consists of a single stanza, with ten lines. The rhyme scheme is pretty straight forward and consistent, utilising a standard A,B,A,B format throughout the poem. The stylistic devices used are, however, quite distinct. Unlike many poems, metaphors dont seem to play a vital part in fact, the poem doesnt have a single metaphor. Instead, theres quite an excessive use of subjective adjectives, which greatly helps setting the tone and message of the poem. Most notable is perhaps how the author chooses to purposely understate serious issues, in order to suggest patriotic and sympathetic feelings for the reader. An example of such an understatement would be line 7 which says: Yes weve lost heavily in this last scrap.  Scrap in this context means battle. However, wed normally see scrap used in context with normal, unimportant fights, and even used as another term for junk or garbage. This implies that the major who articulates this line is obviously understating and fails to acknowledge the consequences, dramatic events, and horrors of the particular battle, thus making the reader feel disgusted about this major character. Another example of this would be adjectives such as guzzling, gulping, and toddle, which really explores the laissez-faire and immaterial attitude of the major character. Guzzling and gulping, depicts a rather obese, uniformed army official in midst of a greasy meal, which definitely doesnt imply any sympathy for this major character. Toddle excels at describing the laid-back and ignorant attitude of aforementioned character. This ironic tone consists throughout the entire poem. The author seizes the role of a major, and portrays this character as an upper-class, laissez-faire, and ignorant kind of person, who enjoys his managing office while neglecting and understating the sacrifices made by the youth on the battlefield. This irony easily leads to bitterness, and its quite easy to imagine that the authors experiences in the war might not have been amongst the easiest. (A quick research on Siegfried Sassoon shows that he suffered the loss of a dear brother and several horrific incidents as a Field Commander himself, which could point towards Base Details being his reaction and protest of his war-years.) Siegfried Sassoon achieves a great mix between telling an actual story with his poem, as well as portraying strong feelings. The story puts the recipients in midst of the war seen through a majors eyes as he runs through the Roll of Honour. This may not seem like a lot, but this actually creates quite a lot of connotations for the reader to digest along with the other literary devices. The feelings portrayed are, however, most prominent. A clear sense of bitterness, irony, regret, and anger towards the major character is strongly portrayed, and leaves the reader with a feeling of pity, shock and despair in form of great empathy. Compared to Rupert Brookes poem The Soldier, this approach is vastly different. In fact, The Soldier is quite the opposite, as it leaves the reader with a feeling of somewhat (national) pride and respect as these are the main feelings reflected by the narrator of The Soldier. The two poems together does, however, clearly shows the distinct characteristics of a two-faced war; on one hand, the soldiers are regarded as national heroes and saviours, but on the other hand, theyre also just another name on the Roll of Honour whod been used as a tool by their superiors.  The common soldier of WW1 was a loser as well as winner, and Base Details is definitely portraying the losing side, by getting a message of bitterness and regret through to the audience including the major characters for whom this poem is obviously aimed at as well.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Motherhood and High School Students an Example of the Topic School by

Motherhood and High School Students by Expert Prolific writer | 20 Dec 2016 Guidelines regarding teenage pregnancy and motherhood Introduction Need essay sample on "Motherhood and High School Students" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Some schools have sought to punish teenage mothers in many ways to raise awareness on the pitfalls related to teenage pregnancy. Frightened of promoting policies or actions that back teen-age sexuality, schools have developed unclear guidelines regarding teenage pregnancy and motherhood. The toughened images of mothers as sexually careless have been commonly used, while other have simply judged them to likely become bad mothers who will join the row of non-productive American citizens. While it is understandable that the practice tries to free itself from the increase of young women becoming pregnant in the future, there is no acceptable way to explain the support of additional difference forced on the young pregnant mother. She is faced with additional unnecessary shame and unfair treatment from our ruthless and judgmental social system. This will likewise make it harder for her to drag her underdeveloped body to school and face another daily hurdle. Eventually, some would just quit school which accounts for the 62% of young women dropping out of school after giving birth according to Hrabowski (2002, p. 13). In this manner, our social system has actually fallen short of criticizing teenage pregnancy by questioning and stereotyping womens roles and is considered a negative impact on the lives of young mothers in high school. College Students Very Often Tell EssayLab professionals: Who wants to write essay for me? Specialists recommend: Help With Essay Writing. Here Is Your Life Vest! Cheap Essay Helper Write My Essay For Me College Paper Writing Service Reviews Essay Writer Cheap Motherhood for every woman across all age groups regardless of race is an experience of a lifetime. Many believed that the needs of teen-age mothers are similar to the needs of high-risk mothers. Health maintenance is a must as medical professionals offer advice to new mothers to take it slow after childbirth in order to allow the human system to slowly adapt to the bodily changes. Society has to this effect granted working mothers enough amount of rest through maternity leaves before and after delivery to recognize her right to health maintenance. In some societal structures however, the traditional views of motherhood are unwelcome in some areas of our educational system. Some schools impose a mandatory return to school policy right after giving birth to teen-age mothers. The subject of this study is therefore to the value of a few weeks rest for post-partum high school students. A few weeks rest The medical value of rest after childbirth is taught to the mothers of all ages by the health team for health reasons. A longer rest period is even afforded to those who have undergone Caesarean section birth process. Mothers who have undergone normal deliveries were also granted enough rest and time for bonding with their newborn. Medical theories support that insufficient rest is dangerous to young mothers because of negative childbirth complications, resulting to possible deaths according to Lutrell (p. 47). In the real meaning of medical consideration, a young mother is seen fit to enjoy ample amount of rest prior to return to school activities. Humanitarian considerations also understand that the young mother is entitled to spend a few moments of rearing for her newborn child. Right after birth, a teen-age mother is overwhelmed by many reasons to stay at home. Her body has been subjected to extensive demands brought about by the pregnancy and childbirth. Her emotional and psychological issues associated with the pregnancy and childbirth does not also disappear overnight. In many cases, her problems are enhanced with child-rearing capacities amidst other struggles. Newborn babies are also in need of maternal care and nurture. While the society has endorsed breastfeeding as a healthy program for babies and mothers, this activity requires more than a few days of rest. A few weeks after childbirth is therefore a crucial moment for mother and child as the mother needs to fully understand her situation and bond with her baby. Encouraging young mothers some time to rest right after childbirth prevents her from undue harassment while encouraging girls to continue their education in Lutrell (p. 19). It would be meaningless to require a new mother to immediately report to school without predicting the possibility of shaming her in front of other students. Breastfeeding mothers run the actual risk of discovery due to leaking breast milk. Other hormonal changes is also active during this period as new mothers of all ages experience blood flow that eventually lasts for more than two weeks on the average. Also, a time when her confidence is fragile teen-age mothers need an ample amount of support from her family and friends. The educational system with which she has been linked to can greatly assist in order for her to withstand the amount of responsibility hurled upon her. Expressing any need for her to continue her studies is a good thing in order to encourage her perception of available opportunities for her and her child. But a structure that keeps her away from balancing her responsibilities at home will affect her negative attitudes towards school. If the school is indeed bent on providing a safety net for the society, it should therefore realize that teen-age motherhood is a difficult condition requiring their support and understanding. Some schools have been lenient with teen-age pregnancy and have made it easier for the young expectant mothers to attend classes. Yet teenage mothers still find it difficult to adapt to a support system in school that allows her to manage their time between education and their new responsibilities. Although schools have claimed that a supportive atmosphere has been provided with interventions and cannot simply be inpidualized up to a point when the young girls can accept their dual roles, the system can still provide minimum extensions as needed in order to provide a supportive atmosphere (Baker, 2007: 205). New mothers are not simply bent on disregarding them such deliberately trying to be absent in the guise of motherhood. Though additional considerations may interfere with the methods of instruction, helping students finish their studies should be encouraged for them to reap educational benefits. Schools may also offer a student the option of getting a program that can accommodate home-bound instruction or transfer to another school with appropriate resources Lutrell (p.20). Conclusion My current stand on this study is still to require schools to adapt changes in its policies that would be medically beneficial and supportive to the plight of teenage mothers. Imposing a rule that require new mothers in high school to return to school immediately after childbirth is considered medically preposterous. Ample time shouldbe granted for teen-age mothers to re-adjust and get back their roles in the educational system while balancing their new roles at home. Education is a legal right for everyone and the school board should consider that which is beneficial to its students in order to encourage a viable society for all! Works Cited Baker, Phillip. Teenage Pregnancy and Reproductive Health. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2007. Hrabowski, Freeman, Maton, Kenneth I. and Greene, Monica L. Overcoming the Odds: Raising Academically Successful African American Young Women. US: Oxford University Press, 2002. Lutrell, Wendy. Pregnant Bodies, Fertile Minds: Gender, Race, and the Schooling of Pregnant Teens. New York: Routledge, 2003.