Sunday, November 17, 2019
Relationship Issue on Facebook - Research Paper Example Communication in relationships used to be based on letters and phone calls, and face-to-face interaction was more common, one could only meet new people face to face or by introduction, say by a mutual friend. Over the last few years, the dynamics of relationships and interactions has paradigmatically changed since thanks to modern technology, one does not even have to leave their house or home to communicate or interact with someone. This social interaction has been enhanced and dominated by social networking sites, the leading ones being Facebook and twitter (Ayodele 2). People, especially the youth, have taken to social networks not only to communicate with their friends, but as make new ones. Many love relationships have also been formed and flourished online on these social networks; indeed, there are those who join Facebook with the sole intention of dating and finding love. While many of these relationships become successful, there are many more which end up in heartbreak and sometimes even tragically because even criminals and stalkers use the internet to lure their victims. Therefore, it is imperative that we consider several questions, such as if Facebook poses a threat to the security of already existing relationships. What motivates people to look for love in Facebook? Can Facebook be considered a realistic and practical way of starting and building relationships? This essay will focus on the last question; it shall discuss, argue and contest the appropriateness of Facebook as a facilitator for relationships by examining the issues that surround Facebook relationships. There are several issues that make Facebook a shaky setting for developing and growing relationships, one of this is the effect Facebook has on pre-existing relationships. Consider that two people are in a relationship and both happen to be friends on Facebook. One of them may join a group or make friends with a member of the opposite sex who might send suggestive messages or gifts to them. Bearing in mind that the line between innocent flirting and cheating might mean different things to different partners, a post on someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s timeline may cause friction and result in the termination of a relationship (Ilana 878). In another situation, when couples that are friends on Facebook have a falling out or disagreement, one of them may update something about it on their page, and this can cause their partner to feel humiliated. Moreover, youths often use media and technology to promote sexual behavior through highly sexually suggestive messages and sometimes picture in what has been dubbed sexting (Pascoe 6). Facebook easily offers an avenue for this: when people are online, they are able to hide their shyness and will be bolder. This will encourage behavior such as flirting, which easily becomes serious and in some cases turns into full-blown sexting where people send each other suggestive or even nude pictures as well as explicit Messages. If people meet onlin e, they are likely to engage in such activity because lack of direct contact emboldens them; unfortunately, this makes deceit a common future in Facebook relationships (Ayodele 8). In case such an association was to develop in to relationship, two people may move from being friends to being on sexting terms before they have even met in person. Therefore, should they meet, they are likely to engage in sexual activity without knowing much about each other ergo risking contacting sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, AIDS, herpes and others. Facebook has been accused of spoiling relationships, especially long distance ones. This is because while Facebook offers an avenue
Friday, November 15, 2019
How Does Technological Advancement Eliminate Genetic Disease Amy Chong How Do Technological Advancement, Combined With Our Extensive Knowledge From The Human Genome Project, Help Us To Eliminate Genetic Diseases? Abstract The aim of this project is to answer the question how do technological advancements, combined with our extensive knowledge from the Human Genome Project, help us to eliminate genetic diseases? I want to find out more about genetic diseases, such as Myotonic Dystrophy and Cystic Fibrosis, and the stage that scientists are at in curing patients. Ill explore the ethical issues of possible gene editing in the future. Ive carried out a lot of research on the background of genetic diseases and one could speculate that gene editing could eliminate diseases within the next decade or two, if technologies continue to expand at the current rate. This report has enabled me to recognise the work of scientists and furthermore, encouraged me to pursue a career in STEM[DS1]. Introduction History of the Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project was a ground breaking discovery in the understanding of how we evolved as human beings (Carey, 2015). Their aim was to map and understand all the genes for building human beings by going through 3.2 billion bases. A genome can be defined as an organisms complete set of DNA, including all of its genes (Genetics Home Reference, 2016). This research has clearly revolutionised genetics as the cost of gene editing and testing has decreased by 99 percent (Kurzgesagt, 2015[DS2]). Methodology My research is based on secondary qualitative research from published journals, scientific reports and books. It didnt cost any money to conduct. Ive approached my question through Jennifer Doudnas lens on future technology such as CRISPR to eliminate disease. Theyre all diseases that have known genetic causes, and we now have the technology that can repair those mutations. (Jennifer Doudna, 2016). Ill apply CRISPR in contrast to current technologies used. DNA Coding What is the genetic code? DNA is made up of many nucleotides containing three molecules: a deoxyribose pentose sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous organic base. These bases are Cytosine (C), Adenine (A), Thymine (T) and Guanine (G) (Toole, 2015). How does genetic codes link to genetic diseases? Three bases code for an amino acid. The code is non-overlapping which reveals theres only twenty different amino acids present in proteins. Changes to the base sequence or quantity results in a mutation. There are four types of mutations that can occur during DNA semi-conservative replication: nonsense, missense, silent and frame shift. Any of these changes to the DNA sequence leads to gene mutation'(Toole, 2015). This is shown in figure one. Figure one Effects of single base mutation In DNA Code[DS3]. Myotonic Dystrophy From the Genome Project, its evident that the isolation of a number of genes is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy. Myotonic Dystrophy is a dominant disorder. Patients suffer from prolonged contractions, therefore are unable to relax their muscles (Genetics Home Reference,2016). The symptoms start to appear during adulthood. According to the Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy in Britain research, (1975) there are two types of Myotonic Dystrophy. Type one involves weak muscles affecting the lower legs, hands, neck, and face. Whereas type two is associated with the muscles of the neck, shoulders, elbows, and hips. The two differ due to mutations in different genes (Harper, 1975). Figure two (in appendices) reveals the muscle strength of those who suffer from this disease in contrast to a person, with average height and build, with the muscle strength of 38kg (Grassino etal.,1997:135). How does Myotonic Dystrophy differ from other genetic diseases? This genetic disease has different characteristics to a typical dominant disorder. Normally, the symptoms of genetic diseases dont get worse when they are passed on from parent to child. This is the case with Myotonic Dystrophy. The disease is unique due to the gene containing small sequences of DNA thats repeated multiple of times. Type 1 is caused by a mutation in the DMPK gene, which appears to regulate the production and function of structures inside muscle cells. The mutated DMPK gene contains three DNA nucleotides CTG repeated in the ranges from 5 to 34. On the other hand, type two is caused by CNBP gene. This consist of four DNA nucleotides CCTG repeated fewer than 26 times (Carey, 2015). What technologies have been made to eliminate Myotonic Dystrophy? Currently, theres no cure or specific treatment for Myotonic Dystrophy but there is a promising step forward toward muscular Dystrophy treatment (the University of Rochester Medical Centre, 2012). Their research involves reversing the symptoms by creating synthetic compounds that will eliminate a buildup of toxic RNA in muscle cells. This was tested on mice and results showed that symptoms were reduced for up to one year. According to Charles Thorntom (2012), these results give us strong encouragement about the possibility of developing a treatment. Is testing mice the best research method? How will we know if the research would eliminate the genetic disease in humans[DS4]? What are the implications of the research? As the cure is still to be found, it is not possible to test on humans due to limitless RNA targets involved in disease; the question is how to find small molecules that bind to them, (Disney,2012). Because of limitless RNA targets, it complicates the target amplification system. This is an enzyme-medicated process, therefore, millions of targeted enzymes are copied within several hours; the copies made would be used for research. As a result, the techniques are sensitive to contamination. This could lead to false-positive reactions which cause implications for future research (McClatchey, 2002). What has been done to prevent false-positive reactions? Perhaps the University of Rochester Medical Center should consider using Kaspersky Lab technology to test for false-positive reactions. The machine can automatically create files for results that are common or not. Results that are not common are ignored and wont affect research. This upgrade in technology would make their results more clear (Kaspersky Lab, 2015). But should they accept the false positive results as side effects of their research? Could these false positive results be significant in their research? Cystic Fibrosis Ã Ã Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease causing a build up of mucus to damage the bodys organs. Mucus is a lubricant that protects the linings of the airways and digestive system. People with cystic fibrosis, produces thick mucus that clogs the airways causing problems with breathing. Over time, it can permanently damage the lungs by producing scar tissues. Scar tissues are thicker and less elastic than normal tissues so the tidal volume is reduced (Genetics Home Reference, 2016). Which codes causes Cystic Fibrosis? If youre missing two letters out of 3.2 billion of the sequence, ATT CTT GATT, you have cystic fibrosis (Sabatini,2016). Mutation in the CFTR gene disrupts the flow of chloride ions across cell membrane, which is necessary to produce freely flowing mucus (Genetics Home Reference, 2016). What technologies have been made to eliminate Cystic Fibrosis? From the Human Genome Project, we know which genome codes for lungs, and with the help of stem cells and tissue engineering, scientist believe it is possible for human lungs to be successfully grown in a lab for the first time, (Medical News Today, 2014). Due to shortage of donor organs, using stem cells (which are able to differentiate in to other cells) is a desirable approach for organ replacement. Whilst the field of tissue engineering has successfully reconstructed cartilage frameworks for ears and bones in the skull and face; they struggle to use stem cells to grow lungs thatll survive and function properly (Lui etal.,2013). This means maintaining blood and oxygen supply inside the body without clotting (The Guardian, 2015). Will growing organs give a better quality of life to those who suffer from Cystic Fribrosis? Would this be as effective as gene editing technology? Gene Editing Technology CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) CRISPR-Cas9 is a technology, using bacteria, that enables parts of the genome to be cut out and replaced, or to add parts of DNA sequence.The CRISPR-Cas9 system consists of two key molecules: enzyme Cas9 (a molecular scissors that cuts a specific location of DNA) and RNA (The New York Times, 2015). Figure three (in appendices) will show the steps of gene editing. Once the DNA is edited, the mutation causing the genetic disease would be eliminated (Your Genome, 2016). Technology success Layla recovered from leukaemia thanks to gene-editing technology. For children as young as Layla, the cure rates are only 25 per cent (Sujith Samarasinghe, 2015). As a result, her doctors proceed to gene therapy to removing immune cells from her body and genetically engineer them to attack cancerous cells (Nature, 2015). She received T-cells (exposed to a DNA-cutting enzyme called a TALEN) from a healthy donor. The process was done so that the modified T-cells injected were not recognised as foreign. T-cells are significant because receptor CAR19 helps programs the T-cells to kill any cells with protein CD19 found on cancer cells. Is the process this simple? Theres a risk of the enzyme being cut the wrong place resulting cells turning cancerous (New Scientist, 2015). Research on gene editing is now expanding to minimise this risk. Soon there are a whole bunch of other disorders we cure (Qasim, 2015). Since she is the first person to be cured using gene editing does this mean its safe to proceed this process on other diseases? Ethical Issues Objective of Gene Editing As the technology is at its early stages, scientist are creating a modified version of Cas9 thatll change specific letters to remove the mutation that caused genetic disease. In most eyes, gene editing is unjust since the technology is limited to individuals. Researchers are mainly testing on reproductive cells to prevent children from having the condition. Theyre plan to carry human trial by the end of 2016. Do we know enough information for humans to participate as the effects are unpredictable? (Your Genome, 2015). Future Generations According to David Baltimore (2015) we sense that we are close to being able to alter human heredity. CRISPR is opposed by a lot of people as they want new laws and regulations to protect the human gene pool of our entire species. The process is irreversible. If technology advancement and researchers have enough information to create modified humans, we have to consider the cost. This is a valid point as wealthy parent maybe tempted to treat unwanted characteristics that are not actually diseases. Do we want stronger, smarter, taller children with specific colour eyes? Could designer babies be the answer to eliminate genetic diseases? These are the questions that pose potential flaws is the advancement of technology[DS5]. Conclusion Gene editing research and technology advancement is the step forward in eliminating genetic diseases. From my selective mention of genetic diseases such as Myotonic Dystrophy and Cystic Fibrosis, we can see technologies such as growing organs using stem cells and synthesis of compounds to cure disease are making progress. The focus of gene editing will an effective treatment if the trials are successful. This is the beginning of revolutionising human genome and eliminating genetic disease as a whole. References Carey.N, (2015). Junk DNA. London: Icon Books Ltd. Pages 7-11. CNBC, (2016). Editing our genes to cure not just treat disease. [Online] Available at: http://www.cnbc.com/2016/05/26/editing-our-genes-to-curenot-just-treatdisease.html [Accessed 31 Aug. 2016]. Genetic Home Reference, (2016). Myotonic Dystrophy. [Online] Available at: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/myotonic-dystrophy [Accessed 29 Aug. 2016]. Genetic Home Reference, (2016). What is a genome? [Online] Available at: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/hgp/genome [Accessed 20 Aug. 2016]. Grassino etal. (1997). Relationship Between Chronic Hypercapnia and Inspiratory-Muscle Weakness in Myotonic Dystrophy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, [Online] Volume(158), pages 133-137. Available at: http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/full/10.1164/ajrccm.156.1.9509041#readcube-epdf [Accessed 31 Aug. 2016]. Harper,P. (1975). Congenital myotonic dystrophy in Britain. Archives of Disease in Childhood, [Online] Volume(50), pages 505-513. Available at: http://adc.bmj.com/content/50/7/505.full.pdf [Accessed 29 Aug. 2016]. Kaspersky, (2015). Kaspersky Lab Patents Automated False-Positive Testing Technology Based on Machine Learning Algorithms. [Online] Available at: http://www.kaspersky.com/about/news/product/2015/Kaspersky-Lab-Patents-Automated-False-Positive-Testing-Technology-Based-on-Machine-Learning-Algorithms [Accessed 29 Aug. 2016]. Kurzgesagt In a Nutshell, (2016). Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything Forever CRISPR. [Online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAhjPd4uNFY [Accessed 11 Aug. 2016]. Live Science, (2013). DNA: Definition, Structure Discovery. [Online] Available at: http://www.livescience.com/37247-dna.html [Accessed 20 Aug. 2016]. Lui, Yunying etal.(2013) Generation of functional organs from stem cells. BioMed Central, Page 1. McClatchey,K. (2002). Clinical Laboratory Medicine. 2nd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Page 1237. Medical News Today, (2014). Human lungs successfully grown in a lab for the first time. [Online] Available at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/272763.php [Accessed 29 Aug. 2016]. Myotonic Dystrophy Foundation, (2012).SCIENTISTS CREATE POTENT MOLECULES AIMED AT TREATING MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. [Online] Available at: http://www.myotonic.org/scientists-create-potent-molecules-aimed-treating-myotonic-dystrophy [Accessed 29 Aug. 2016]. National Human Genome Research Institute, (2012). A New Five-Year Plan for the United States: Human Genome Program. [Online] Available at: https://www.genome.gov/10001476/human-genome-projects-fiveyear-plan-19931998/ [Accessed 29. Aug. 2016]. Nature, (2015). Leukaemia success heralds wave of gene-editing therapies. [Online] Available at: http://www.nature.com/news/leukaemia-success-heralds-wave-of-gene-editing-therapies-1.18737 [Accessed 31 Aug. 2016]. New Scientist, (2015). Gene editing saves girl dying from leukaemia in world first. [Online] Available at: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn28454-gene-editing-saves-life-of-girl-dying-from-leukaemia-in-world-first/ [Accessed 31 Aug. 2016]. Openstax CNX, (2016). DNA Repair. [Online] Available at: https://cnx.org/contents/[emailprotected]/DNA-Repair [Accessed 20 Aug. 2016]. Science Daily, (2015).Potential treatment identified for myotonic muscular dystrophy. [Online]. Available at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150318140652.htm [Accessed 29 Aug. 2016]. Toole,G. and Toole,S. (2015). A Level AQA Biology. 2nd Edition. Glasgow: Bell and Bain Ltd. Pages 36-37, 202-203. University of Rochester Medical Center, (2012). A Promising Step Forward Toward Muscular Dystrophy Treatment. [Online] Available at: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story/3572/a-promising-step-forward-toward-muscular-dystrophy-treatment.aspx [Accessed 29 Aug. 2016]. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, (2001). Ten facts from the Human Genome Project. [Online] Available at: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/news/view/ten-facts-human-genome-project [Accessed 20 Aug. 2016]. Your Genome, (2015). Is germline gene therapy ethical? [Online] Available at: http://www.yourgenome.org/debates/is-germline-gene-therapy-ethical [Accessed 31 Aug. 2016]. Your Genome, (2016). What is CRISPR-Cas9? [Online] Available at: http://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-crispr-cas9 [Accessed 31 Aug. 2016]. Appendices Figues and diagram Figure two Results of muscle weakness in Myotonic Dystrophy patients in contrast to those who dont have the disease. Figure three The stages of using bacteria to edit DNA sequence. Gantt Chart Glossary Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) a molecule that is consist of instructions for an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce. Non-overlapping each base in the sequence is read one. Dominant allele the disease is present even if the individual only has one copy of the allele. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) a messenger carrying single stranded instructions from DNA to control protein synthesis. Enzyme-medicated process single enzyme or multiple enzymes synthesis copies of nuclei acid. False positive A result that indicates that a given condition is present when it is not. Cell membrane the partially permeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell. Stem cells an undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism which has the ability to differentiate to repair and replace damaged tissues and organs. Tissue -ÃâÃ group of similar cells working together to perform a special function. Organ Combination of tissues that are coordinated to perfrm a variety of functions. Eg. Heart, lungs. T- Cells Type of lympocyte matured in the thymus gland that is involved in humoral immunity. Enzyme a protein with a specific active site and tertiary structure. It acts as a biological catalyst to bring about a biochemical reaction. Cas9 a protein that guides the RNA to enter cells without undergoing transcription and translation. [DS1]Good start. In future, try to practice academic language. Such as This paper willÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ or The research in this paper will discussÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ avoid using I, me, we my etc. [DS2]Good. [DS3]Good [DS4]Excellent points raised. [DS5]Good point
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Choosing a network that does not meet an organization's needs leads directly to trouble. A common problem arises from choosing a peer-to-peer network when the situation calls for a server-based network Peer to peer networks share responsibility for processing data among all of the connected devices. Peer-to-peer networking (also known simply as peer networking) differs from client-server networking in several respects. According to the computer specifications a peer-to-peer network is inadequate. It can exhibit problems with changes in the network site. These are more likely to be logistical or operational problems than hardware or software problems. For example users may turn off computers that are providing resources to others on the network. (Rutter, 2008). When a network's design is too limited, it cannot perform satisfactorily in some environments. Problems can vary depending on the type of network topology in effect. The physical topology of a network is the layout or actual appearance of the cabling scheme used on a network. Multipoint topologies share a common channel; each device needs a way to identify itself and the device to which it wants to send information. The method used to identify senders and receivers is called addressing. (Mitchel, 2008) The term topology, or more specifically, network topology, refers to the arrangement or physical layout of computers, cables, and other components on the network. Ã¢â¬Å"TopologyÃ¢â¬ is the standard term that most network professionals use when they refer to the network's basic design. In addition to the term Ã¢â¬Å"topology,Ã¢â¬ there are other terms that are used to define a network's design: Physical layout, Design, Diagram or Map. (Mitchel, 2008). A network's topology affects its capabilities. The choice of one topology over another will have an impact on the type of equipment the network needs, Capabilities of the equipment, Growth of the network and Way the network is managed. According to Rutter, a network topology needs planning. For example, a particular topology can determine not only the type of cable used but also how the cabling runs through floors, ceilings, and walls. Topology can also determine how computers communicate on the network. Different topologies require different communication methods, and these methods have a great influence on the network. The most popular and recommendable method of connecting the cabling in the proposed computer network is the client server architecture of star topology. Here each device connects to a central point via a point-to-point link. Several names are used for the central point including the following: Hub, Multipoint Repeater, Concentrator, or Multi-Access Unit (MAU). (Microsoft MVP, 2004). For the recommended network, the central point ought to be an intelligent hub, which can make informed path selections and perform some network management. Intelligent hubs route traffic only to the branch of the star on which the receiving node is located. If redundant paths exist, an intelligent hub can route information around normally used paths when cable problems occur. Routers, bridges, ; switches are examples of hub devices that can route transmissions intelligently. These hubs are advanced such that they are able to accommodate several different types of cables. In this case there can be a main hub (the hybrid) with other sub-hubs especially for growth purposes. Intelligent hubs also can incorporate diagnostic features that make it easier to troubleshoot network problems. Hub-based systems are versatile and offer several advantages over systems that do not use hubs. In the standard star topology with hubs, a break in any of the cables attached to the hub affects only a limited segment of the network mostly only one workstation while the rest of the network keeps functioning.Ã In this kind of a system, wiring systems can be changed or expanded as needed, different ports can be used to accommodate a variety of cabling types and monitoring of network activity and traffic can be centralized. (Rutter, 2008) The star topology has many benefits; first each device is isolated on its own cable. This makes it easy to isolate individual devices from the network by disconnecting them from the wiring hub. Secondly all data goes through the central point, which can be equipped with diagnostic devices that make it easy to trouble shoot and manage the network. Lastly the Hierarchical organization allows isolation of traffic on the channel. This is beneficial when several, but not all, computers place a heavy load on the network. Traffic from those heavily used computers can be separated from the rest or dispersed throughout for a more even flow of traffic. According to Rutter This topology originated in the early days of computing when computers were connected to a centralized mainframe computer. One machine can act as a server and as a client at the same time since the setup is not concerned with security. This machine should be the one with the highest processing speed (3GHz), largest Random Access memory (1 Gb) and enough disk space (120 Gb). The importance of the server is to concentrate common peripheral devices, which do not need to be in multiples in the network. This computer can meet the processing and storage needs of other users, it can be able to support many more users in cases of expansion, it also enables administration of resources centrally in cases of troubleshooting there is more consistency and reliability and it also provides backup for the other machines. The server has many dedicated specialized functions in addition to providing basic network services. First it can be dedicated to managing network printers and print jobs to avoid unnecessary spooling. Secondly it can manage modems and other types of communication links. It can also be used to store large databases and run some database applications. Fourthly it can run an application for the access across the network. It can act as a mail server and provide access to email services as well as sending and forwarding email messages to intended recipients in the network. Lastly a server may provide a wide range of information to the public Internet or private intranets form the network. Upgrades can be to maintain, troubleshoot, update and fix the other computers remotely. It's way more effective than trying to explain what to do over the phone. Conclusion Topologies remain an important part of network design theory. You can probably build a home or small business network without understanding the difference between a bus design and a star design, but understanding the concepts behind these gives you a deeper understanding of important elements like hubs, broadcasts, and routes Work Cited: Brandley Mitchel, The New York Times Company. (2008). Wireless Networking. . Retrieved May 10, 2008 from: http://compnetworking.about.com/ Microsoft Most Valuable Profession, (2004, 1st December). Hardware and software specifications. http://www.ezlan.net/Installing.html Daniel Rutter, (2008,1st April). Ethernet Networking. Retrieved May 10, 2008 from: http://www.dansdata.com/network.htm
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Girl Guides are organised into units/troops averaging 20-30 girls under guidance of a team of leaders. Units subdivide into patrols of about six Guides and engage in outdoor and special interest activities. Units may affiliate with national and international organisations. Some units, especially in Europe, have been co-educational since the 1970s, allowing boys and girls to work together as Scouts. There are other programme sections for older and younger girls. Contents 1 Naming 2 Key points 3 Unit affiliation 4 Uniforms 5 Lones 6 See also 7 References Naming Robert Baden-Powell was a famous soldier who fought in the Boer War in South Africa at the beginning of the 20th century. During the Siege of Mafeking, when the town and British soldiers were besieged by Boer soldiers, B-P noticed how the young boys made themselves useful by carrying messages for the soldiers. When he came home, he decided to put some of his Scouting ideas into practice to see if they would be any good for young boys and took 21 boys camping on Brownsea Island, near Poole in Dorset. The camp was a success, and B-P wrote his book Scouting for Boys, covering tracking, signaling, cooking etc. Soon boys began to organize themselves into Patrols and Troops and called themselves Ã¢â¬Å"Boy ScoutsÃ¢â¬ . Girls bought the book as well and formed themselves into Patrols of Girl Scouts. In 1909 there was a Boy Scout Rally at Crystal Palace in London. Among all the thousands of Boy Scouts there was also a group of girls from Pinkneys Green, in Berkshire, who spoke to B-P and asked him to let girls be Scouts. B-P decided to take action. Eerste Nederlandsche Meisjes Gezellen Vereeniging (First Dutch Girls Companions Society), 1911, first Dutch Girl Guides In those days, for girls to camp and hike was not common, as this extract from the Scout newspaper shows: Ã¢â¬Å"If a girl is not allowed to run, or even hurry, to swim, ride a bike, or raise her arms above her head, how can she become a Scout?Ã¢â¬  B-PÃ¢â¬â¢s career had been in the British Army. There was an Indian regiment called the Khyber Guides who served on the north-west frontier of India. B-P persuaded the girl Ã¢â¬Å"ScoutsÃ¢â¬ that Guides was a very special name of which they could be proud. So, in 1910 the first Girl Guides began. Since 1910 Guides have spread and there are now millions of Guides worldwide. The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) was formed to link together Guides. In some countries the girls preferred to call themselves Ã¢â¬ËGirl ScoutsÃ¢â¬â¢. (Reference: Ã¢â¬ËThe Guide HandbookÃ¢â¬â¢, London: The Guide Association, 1996) The first Guide Company was 1st Pinkneys Green Guides (Miss Baden PowellÃ¢â¬â¢s Own), who still exist in Pinkneys Green, Maidenhead in the English county of Berkshire. Polish Girl Guides by the monument to Small Partisan in Warsaw Key points Things that are shared amongst all Guide Units are: The Guide Promise Ã¢â¬â Girls become Guides by making their Promise. Each country has its own Promise but all have the same 3 parts: duty to God or to your religion; duty to your country; keeping the Guide Law. The Good Turn Ã¢â¬â each Guide tries to do a kind thing for someone else, without payment and without being asked, every day. The World Badge Ã¢â¬â this can be worn on uniform or ordinary clothes. The three leaves of the trefoil stand for the threefold Promise. The vein in the centre is a compass needle, pointing the way and the two stars stand for the Promise and the Law. The colours stand for the golden sun shining over all the children of the world, from a blue sky. This badge is a guiding symbol that can be recognized all over the world. The World Flag Ã¢â¬â this is in the same colours as the World Badge and can be carried or flown by any member of the movement. It is often used as the Unit Flag. The three yellow blocks represent the threefold Promise and the white corner represents the commitment to peace of all WAGGGsÃ¢â¬â¢ members. The Guide Sign Ã¢â¬â the three fingers stand for the three parts of the Promise. The Guide sign is used when making or renewing the Promise and can be used when meeting other Guides. It may also be used when receiving a badge or at the end of meetings. The Motto Ã¢â¬â Be Prepared Ã¢â¬â This means that Guides are ready to cope with anything that might come their way.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Personal Choices Ã¢â¬â Sociology Class Paper Free Online Research Papers Question: According to the text, in what ways are personal choices affected by social influences such as historical events, race and ethnicity, social class, and age expectations? Be sure to support your answer with data or facts from the text. Answer: Personal choices are affected by many social influences. Making a choice based on what society Ã¢â¬Å"saysÃ¢â¬ a person should do is often the way people decide. An example given in class is that our society says people should wear clothes. Whereas in many societies this is not the case, in our society people wear clothes because if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t, they would feel out of place. An example from the textbook is that Ã¢â¬Å"in the 1950s and early 1960s people tended to marry earlier than they do now. With the median age at marriage at about 20 for women and 22 for men then (compared with about 24 for women and 26 for men now), it was more difficult to remain single after graduation, and women in their last year of college sometimes became panicky enough to marry men they did not really care for.Ã¢â¬ Fortunately, our society today sees marriage as something that can wait a little longer, and people arenÃ¢â¬â¢t getting married as soon, so hopefully this pressure has been somewhat alleviated from women. Historical events like war, depression, inflation, and social change, affect the decisions people make also. In a depression there are less jobs to be found, so a person might not be as willing to quit the job they currently have if they are unhappy. On the other side of the coin, a person who is looking for a job and can find one would probably take whatever he or she could get. The textbook gives the example that Ã¢â¬Å"the Vietnam War may have played a part in the rise in the American divorce rate in the sixties and seventies.Ã¢â¬ Another important factor in making personal choices lies in race and ethnicity. The textbook says Ã¢â¬Å"Asian Americans may be more strongly influenced by their parents in choices about marriage than are other Americans.Ã¢â¬ Often, people of a certain race believe in a certain religion, which may limit choices that another race/religion offers. Also, racial discrimination is a huge limiting factor on choices that a person can make. Social class is still another factor that influences the choices people make. A wealthy person many times has more options than a poorer person has. These options include better health care, better schooling, etc. Social class also affects the way people raise their children. According to the textbook, Ã¢â¬Å"middle-class parents value self-direction and initiative in children, whereas parents in working-class families stress obedience and conformity.Ã¢â¬ Research Papers on Personal Choices - Sociology Class PaperInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyHip-Hop is Art19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraCapital PunishmentMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenStandardized TestingTrailblazing by Eric Anderson
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Teachers as influential individuals essays Teaching is a way to train the young, in a selected environment (such as Miriam College), to help them adjust to the world in which they live. The researchers accept as true that teaching is passed on by people around, particularly the teachers. As a teacher, one must acknowledge the value and skill of each individual. Given that teaching is considered to be a dynamic art, a successful teacher should be very artistic, innovative and resourceful in order to meet the changing needs of the students. In addition, teachers are viewed as greatly influential individuals. Therefore, it is understood that one should be skillful in using strategies as well as having a full grasp of the basic teaching strategies present. They can somehow make or break the academic performance of the students. Often times we hear students complaining about one or more subject/s. Possible failure of students has been a reality, because of so many reasons, and lack of interest may be one of these. Lively teachers who creatively think of different activities for lessons may successfully grasp the attention of the students. While teachers who are too strict may encourage students to strive harder or it can also happen that the students will be too tensed to completely understand the lesson. We usually hear teachers saying, You are the ones who make your grades. We only record it. There is truth in the statement, and it is in the hands of the students, indeed, on how they will attain good grades, but have teachers ever thought that they are partly a factor of how students perceive, and accept the subject? Also, do teachers consider the fact that they are responsible for encouraging students to improve on their academic performance? There is a tendency for students to be lazy in coming to class religiously, giving their best in school works, and even being attentive during class discussions. It is noticeable that it becomes harder to...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Helping Families of Children with Disabilities - Essay Example As Sloper (1999) put it, the manner in which family members perceive and interpret the strains experienced in parenting a facing implications regarding the way in which children's services are designed and delivered child is an important factor for the entire family's wellbeing. Recent technology has provided means for medical parents and carers to diagnose disabilities prior even to the birth of a child. The responsibility of medical and mental health parents and carers to provide aid to parents in understanding their support in their child's disability begins at the moment of information and realization of the disability. Most parents of facing implications regarding the way in which children's services are designed and delivered children feel that because of the added attention and care needed by the child, they need to sacrifice more of their personal ambitions and goals. As the child develops it has been observed that some parents feel that they have to compensate for the disability of their child. Overemphasis on the special needs of their facing implications regarding the way in which children's services are designed and delivered child may result in insufficient attention given to his or her siblings. Such practices lead to maladaptive family development. Thus, tantrums and other behavioral disorders tolerated from a facing implications regarding the way in which children's services are designed and delivered child would begin to manifest in the other children as well as they see that their parents endure such behavior. What parents should be aware of is that tolerance of and inability to addre ss the behavioral aspect of a child's disability may lead to abnormal behavior in other children as well. The need for therapists to address the needs not only of facing implications regarding the way in which children's services are designed and delivered children themselves but of their families as well could not be made clearer. With parents and carers taking on the task of catering to the problems encountered by parents, they are affecting the entire process of development the child would be brought up in. Prior to their child's birth parents are likely to have been exposed to professional dominance and consumerism. Because they are ill prepared for the birth of a facing implications regarding the way in which children's services are designed and delivered child, they are likely to rely heavily on the advice of parents and carers. The inability to comprehend the nature of the diagnosis immobilizes parents from responding to their child's situation. When parents and carers determ ine the diagnosis during the prenatal period and they are able to communicate the same to the parents effectively, parents are able to gradually adapt to their situation. Finally, just as positive regard for the child is important from family and friends, such positive regard is more so needed from parents and carers. Family Therapy Models Raising a facing implicat