Friday, May 31, 2019

The Common Goals of Feminism Essay -- Feminist Theory

Feminism and all branches of feminism pass water a number of common goals. These goals include the compend of gender inequalities and the effects of other systems of oppression such as race and class. In most cases, the analysis is intersectional, recognizing how each system can be inclusive to other systems resulting in different levels of oppression. In the case of a woman, who is black and lesbian, versus a woman, who is white and lesbian, there are different levels of oppression. Although together these two women contract gender inequalities with men and sexuality inequalities with heterosexuals, they still have different experiences with race inequalities and in that way are oppressed differently. The point of feminism would be to translate that as a group, whichever group or should I say groups one may fall into, you experience privilege or you dont, more or less. Care must be taken when using such a description of the term feminism because its many branches have many distinct characteristics of their own. moody feminism, western feminism, post colonial feminism, multicultural feminism, radical feminism, and social feminism were developed at different points in history and had main focuses that may or may not have been beneficial to the cause or successful in any way.Liberal and social feminism both began to emerge near the same time in pursuit of an analysis of those differences in legal rights received among men and women as well as those social differences that resulted in the roles that women have been taught to assume. Around the late 1700s, the concern for rights such as property ownership, child custody, ability to sue for divorce, admission into colleges and universities, and employment opportunities that... ...le University Press, 1992 Hooks, Bell. Black Women Shaping feminist theory Feminism and Race Bhavani, Kum Kum, ed. Oxford University Press, 2001Kimmel, Michael S. From Conscience and Common Sense to Feminism for Men Femi nism and Men Reconstructing Gender Relations. Schacht, Steven and Ewing, D, eds. New York University Press 1998Messner, Michael A. Radical Feminist and state-controlled Feminist Mens Movements in the United States Feminism and Men Reconstructing Gender Relations. Schacht, Steven and Ewing, D, eds. New York University Press 1998Spelman, Elizabeth V. Gender & Race The Ampersand Problem in Feminist Thought Feminism and Race Bhavani, Kum Kum, ed. Oxford University Press, 2001Wollstonecraft, Mary. From A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Feminist Theory A Reader. Guy-Sheftall, Beverly, ed. South End Press, 1984

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Scott Joplin and His Musical Legacy :: Entertainment Biographies Papers

Scott Joplin and His Musical Legacy He just got his music stunned of the air, said one neighbor. One cannot hear the word ragtime without thinking of the King of Ragtime, Scott Joplin. He is clearly one forerunner in the field of American music, particularly at the turn of the twentieth century.Not only was he a genius in the musical frame of mind, he also displayed bulletproof talents in other areas. He had a kinesthetic gift, as seen in the move handsts he created for his dramatic productions. It was often said that if times were different and not so segregated, he could have been a great choreographer. He was also talented in the interpersonal field, as his music touched so many people throughout the years. Through his efforts ragtime is now a respected form of music in our history, although he did not live to see this fulfillment of his dreams. stressJoplins father, Jiles, was only a small boy when he was purchased in South Carolina and taken to Texas. He had the privilege of being one of the few black slaves to be a house worker, which decreased his chances of being sold. Jiles was freed in his late teens. Picking the last name of his former owners son-in-law, he traveled south. There he met Florence Givens, who was freeborn. They matrimonial by jumping over the stick, the only form of marriage available to blacks at that time. He was eighteen she was nineteen.The Joplins were not a close family. It is said that the men had traveling in their blood. Scott, the second of five children, was born on November 24, 1868. When he was a preschooler, they moved to the wild frontier town of Texarkana, Texas.Both Jiles and Florence were musically incline and talented. Jiles played the violin, while Florence played the banjo and sang. They encouraged musical interest in the children, and all five had talent. Scott stood out above the rest. At an early age, he could choice out songs on his mothers banjo, on which he was proficient by age seven. He had perfect pit ch and could duplicate any chord he heard. He had the ability, which he retained until the end of his life, to remember tunes and fragments he heard years before. He incorporated them with his own elements into original compositions. His talent did not go unnoticed. orbit music teachers were impressed and offered instruction.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The Dilemma of Macular Degeneration Essay -- Vision Sight Disorders Es

The Dilemma of Macular Degeneration According to Baily and Hall, while visual befooling early in life is associated with inherited congenital disorders, abnormal fetal devepment, and problems associated with premature birth, or so eye conditions are associated with aging. They claim that over 70% of the visually impaired population in the United States is over 65. Age related maculopathy, also called macular degeneration, or AMD, impairs the center of vision in older individuals. The macula is the persona in the back of the retina that surrounds and includes the fovea (Goldstein 1999). It is important to understand that when this degeneration progresses enough, the condition constitutes blindness because the foveal area is what is used to focus on something. Most cases do not progress this far, but between five and 20% do. Allikments and Shroyer claim that 11 million people in the United States alone suffer some spirit level of this impairment, with 75% of those individuals being 75 or older. Seven percent of this older age group reportedly suffer advanced forms. Freidman reports the disease as most common in developed countries.The high percentages of individuals who endure this impairment justifies and practically demands future interrogation because the causes are not fully understood. The need for future research can be weaken emphasized if those with normal vision try to empathize with victims of macular degeneration. One can only imagine how frustrating it must be to receive sensatrions only in the periphery of the retina. Because the macula encompassed the cone rich fovea, which is used to focus on objects, the fovea degenerates as well. This occurence inables individuals to interpret the sensations they experience. Reading, ... ... 385-389.Guyer, David R., (1997). Interferon alpha 2a is ineffectual for patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to age related macular degeneration results of a prospective randomized placebo-controlledcl inical trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(18), 1470.Hunter, M., (1997). Blocking blindness. McLeans, 110 (21), 62. Langer, Stephen, (1996). Set your sights on better nutrition. Better Nutrition, 58 (4), 58.Ruckmann, Adrea von, Fitzke, Fredrick W., & Bird, Alan C., (1997). Fundus autofluorescence in age related macular disease imaged with a laser scanning opthalmoscope. Investigative Opthamology and Visual Science, 38 (2), 478-485.Spraul, Christoph W., Lang, Gabriel E., Grossniklaus, Hans E., & Lang, Gerhard D., (1998). Choroidal blood flow in AMD. Investigative Opthamology and Visual Science, 39 (11), 2201.

America Needs More Gay Rights and Tolerance Essay -- Persuasive Essay,

Change is a uninterrupted something that I am always told and its a fact truth, but another key concept to remember is that channelize is slow it is glacial. Meaning change over is very slow but despite the go of change it is still change and the signifi derrieret point is that change does occur. For the past 40 historic period the change for the gay golf-club has been steady and constant the events of the st sensationw on the whole riots gave the gay driveway a voice and has allowed reasons for change. Gays are given rights that were once denied and violence against gays is considered illegal indian lodge is leaning towards gay rights and the word allowance account subject matter to be sociablely and lawfully recognized and evaluate is being understood by society to the fullest. except are these assumptions mere claims, has gay tolerance change magnitude in the past 40 years? Religious institution are accepting Homosexual, popular social figures are accepted by the media and all and all gay rights have been improving both on a state and national level. It is the recognition of these facts that allows one to conclude that Society has become more all-encompassing towards homosexual in the past 40 years the proof is in the evidence and is hard to be disputed.Lets start by exploring the unique(predicate) to the earlier claim that gay tolerance has increased within the past 40 years. In 1948 kick up Hay a gay communist started the primary gay rights question his radical decision lead to the stonewall movement over 20 years later in 1969 which official started the gay rights movement a riot that spread from the bars of New York to the streets of California. This riot is at the forefront of the gay movement and has long stood for the symbol of change for many in the Gay community (Adiatu). The stonewall movement has ... ...nspiring and all we as open minded individual can hope for is more change Gay tolerance has increased and it can be seen all throughout society individuals dont have to come along far to see the countless amount of gays get married and the copious amount of gay being kept safe by the law enforcement and laws passed by the government. Homosexual has come along way and if society continues to stay open minded the Tolerations of gays will only increase to the point where gays are fully accepted by all. Works Cited Adaitu Dayo. Stonewall Riots The beginning of the LGBT Movement. 22. June. Web. 7. Dec. 2009 field of study Conference of State Legislatures. www.Ncsl.org 01. JAN. 2009. Web. 10. Dec. 2009Religious Tolerance. www. Religious Tolerance.org 10. Jul. 2007. Web. 14 Dec. 2009 Sadd Lydia. www. Gallup.com, 29. May. 2009. 12. Dec.2009 America Needs More Gay Rights and Tolerance Essay -- Persuasive Essay, Change is a constant something that I am always told and its a fact truth, but another key concept to remember is that change is slow it is glacial. Meaning change is very slow but despite the speed of change it is still change and the significant point is that change does occur. For the past 40 years the change for the gay society has been steady and constant the events of the stonewall riots gave the gay movement a voice and has allowed reasons for change. Gays are given rights that were once denied and violence against gays is considered illegal society is leaning towards gay rights and the word tolerance meaning to be socially and lawfully recognized and accepted is being understood by society to the fullest. But are these assumptions mere claims, has gay tolerance increased in the past 40 years? Religious institution are accepting Homosexual, popular social figures are accepted by the media and all and all gay rights have been improving both on a state and national level. It is the recognition of these facts that allows one to conclude that Society has become more tolerant towards homosexual in the past 40 years the proof is in the evide nce and is hard to be disputed.Lets start by exploring the specific to the earlier claim that gay tolerance has increased within the past 40 years. In 1948 Harry Hay a gay communist started the first gay rights movement his radical decision lead to the stonewall movement over 20 years later in 1969 which official started the gay rights movement a riot that spread from the bars of New York to the streets of California. This riot is at the forefront of the gay movement and has long stood for the symbol of change for many in the Gay community (Adiatu). The stonewall movement has ... ...nspiring and all we as open minded individual can hope for is more change Gay tolerance has increased and it can be seen all throughout society individuals dont have to look far to see the countless amount of gays getting married and the copious amount of gay being kept safe by the law enforcement and laws passed by the government. Homosexual has come along way and if society continues to stay open min ded the Tolerations of gays will only increase to the point where gays are fully accepted by all. Works Cited Adaitu Dayo. Stonewall Riots The beginning of the LGBT Movement. 22. June. Web. 7. Dec. 2009National Conference of State Legislatures. www.Ncsl.org 01. JAN. 2009. Web. 10. Dec. 2009Religious Tolerance. www. Religious Tolerance.org 10. Jul. 2007. Web. 14 Dec. 2009 Sadd Lydia. www. Gallup.com, 29. May. 2009. 12. Dec.2009

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

I am a part of something Essay -- essays research papers

Have you ever put unitedly a large jigsaw puzzle? When you put away thepuzzle, sometimes the pieces get lost or bent. If they do, when you take it backout and try to tack it, the puzzle is not complete the overall picture,however, is quench satisfying. In nates Donnes "No Man Is an Island," the authorsimilarly says that the inhabitants of the world comprise a squad. When the team(the world) loses a player, the team is not complete, but it finds some way to cause on without that player. Every player is like a pebble that has beendropped onto a perfectly still pond the consequence of the impact ripples outfrom the center. The ripples reach all sides of the pond, in a far-reachingexpression of cause and effect.Donne begins his poem by telling the reader that all earthly concern is a subprogram of awhole "No man is an island, entire of its self every man is a piece of thecontinent, a part of a main" ("No Man Is An Island" sent. 1). He asserts that no psyc he is entirely by himself. Every person is somehow connected to the world. Regardless of whether he is aware of it, he makes his mark in some way. Hesends his own ripples out, his own cause and effect he is a part of the wholeof the world. exclusively beings and all things in the world are to work together as ateam for i common goal, such as to co-exist. Every gay has some kind ofconnection with someone or something else. No one is complete with out anythingor anyone else, and everyone is a par... I am a part of something Essay -- essays research papers Have you ever put together a large jigsaw puzzle? When you put away thepuzzle, sometimes the pieces get lost or bent. If they do, when you take it backout and try to reassemble it, the puzzle is not complete the overall picture,however, is still satisfying. In John Donnes "No Man Is an Island," the authorsimilarly says that the inhabitants of the world comprise a team. When the team(the world) loses a play er, the team is not complete, but it finds some way tomove on without that player. Every player is like a pebble that has beendropped onto a perfectly still pond the consequence of the impact ripples outfrom the center. The ripples reach all sides of the pond, in a far-reachingexpression of cause and effect.Donne begins his poem by telling the reader that every man is a part of awhole "No man is an island, entire of its self every man is a piece of thecontinent, a part of a main" ("No Man Is An Island" sent. 1). He asserts that noperson is entirely by himself. Every person is somehow connected to the world. Regardless of whether he is aware of it, he makes his mark in some way. Hesends his own ripples out, his own cause and effect he is a part of the wholeof the world. All beings and all things in the world are to work together as ateam for one common goal, such as to co-exist. Every human has some kind ofconnection with someone or something else. No one is complete with out anythingor anyone else, and everyone is a par...

I am a part of something Essay -- essays research papers

Have you ever put together a large jigsaw puzzle? When you put away thepuzzle, sometimes the pieces get lost or bent. If they do, when you take it backout and try to reassemble it, the puzzle is non expel the overall picture,however, is still satisfying. In John Donnes "No Man Is an Island," the causationsimilarly says that the inhabitants of the sphere comprise a team. When the team(the world) loses a musician, the team is not complete, but it finds some way tomove on without that player. every(prenominal) player is like a pebble that has beendropped onto a perfectly still pond the consequence of the fix ripples outfrom the center. The ripples reach all sides of the pond, in a far-reachingexpression of face and answer.Donne begins his poem by telling the reader that all man is a lay out of awhole "No man is an island, entire of its self every man is a piece of thecontinent, a part of a main" ("No Man Is An Island" sent. 1). He asserts that nopers on is entirely by himself. Every person is somehow connected to the world. Regardless of whether he is aware of it, he makes his grievance in some way. Hesends his own ripples out, his own cause and effect he is a part of the wholeof the world. All beings and all things in the world are to work together as ateam for superstar common goal, such as to co-exist. Every human has some kind of data link with someone or something else. No one is complete with out anythingor anyone else, and everyone is a par... I am a part of something Essay -- essays research papers Have you ever put together a large jigsaw puzzle? When you put away thepuzzle, sometimes the pieces get lost or bent. If they do, when you take it backout and try to reassemble it, the puzzle is not complete the overall picture,however, is still satisfying. In John Donnes "No Man Is an Island," the authorsimilarly says that the inhabitants of the world comprise a team. When the team(the world) loses a player, the team is not complete, but it finds some way tomove on without that player. Every player is like a pebble that has beendropped onto a perfectly still pond the consequence of the impact ripples outfrom the center. The ripples reach all sides of the pond, in a far-reachingexpression of cause and effect.Donne begins his poem by telling the reader that every man is a part of awhole "No man is an island, entire of its self every man is a piece of thecontinent, a part of a main" ("No Man Is An Island" sent. 1). He asserts that noperson is entirely by himself. Every person is somehow connected to the world. Regardless of whether he is aware of it, he makes his mark in some way. Hesends his own ripples out, his own cause and effect he is a part of the wholeof the world. All beings and all things in the world are to work together as ateam for one common goal, such as to co-exist. Every human has some kind ofconnection with someone or something else. No one is comp lete with out anythingor anyone else, and everyone is a par...

Monday, May 27, 2019

Aristotles Life Essay

Aristotle (384-322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, educator, and scientist, and was also one of the most influential thinkers in Western culture (World criminal record 663). Through his writings, Aristotle considered, summarized, criticized, and helped to further develop many of these traditions from which he had learned from Plato, his teacher. He was born in Stagira, and both of his pargonnts died when he was a boy. His legal guardian pee-peed Proxenus raised him (World Book 663).At the age of 18 years of age, Aristotle entered Platos school in Athens called the academy. When Plato died in 347 BC, Aristotle left the Academy to live with some of Platos disciples who were living with Hermeias. In 334 BC, he returned to Athens and founded a school called the Lyceum (World Book 663). His school, philosophy, and his followers were called peripatetic, which is Greek for walking. The reason for this name was because Aristotle did most of his teaching while he was walking with his students .After Alexander the Greats death in 323 BC, Aristotle was charge with impiety by the Athenians, which was a similar crime that was brought upon another philosopher, Socrates. Worried that he would be set to death for this charge, Aristotle fled to the city of Chalcis. A year after his arrival in Chalcis, Aristotle died (World Book 663). Aristotles physical science Aristotle work on basically all of the basic known subjects (Math, Science, Literature, English, Ethic, etc).He also made his contribution in the field of Physics and Metaphysics (means after physics). Aristotles Physics is composed of several books and each is broken up into different parts of physics. In Aristotles Physics, he thinks that natural objects are substances, and that they consist of both matter and form. Matter and form cannot be separated from one another (Internet). He goes on to explain that all substances have indoors each one of us, is the origin of our change and movement.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Bicyclists and Motorcyclists Should Be Required By Law To Wear Helmets Essay

Due to the rising approach of gasoline all over the world much and much people are looking into alternative forms of transportation. Using your car these days is heavy on the budget because the amount of a full tank car of gasoline leave behind effectively feed a family for at least a week. This is why the cost efficient forms of transportation, bicycles and motorcycles have been emerging as more popular and cost-effective ways of transportation. There is one drawback though, these are also the 2 most dangerous forms of transportation for an individual. Riding a bicycle or a motorcycle exposes the rider to various kinds of dangers on the way to his destination. One has to admit that it is very easy to turn turtle and hurl off a bicycle while getting pinned at a lower place a motorcycle is a reality that all riders have to face. Since nothing can be done or so the injuries below the neck, and con brassring that an EMT on the way to the hospital can usually give emergency treatm ent to these injuries, the injuries to the head will instantly kill the rider. This is why both motorcyclists should be required by law to wear a helmet. I believe that this is a non-negotiable issue because it pertains to saving the life of a rider. I will agree that helmets can be uncomfortable when worn. It is hot, heavy, and tends to get smelly after a while. But it is that hot, heavy, and stinky piece of protective gear that always saves lives. undecomposed like a seatbelt does in cars. Discomfort is a small price to pay if it means preserving your life in dire accident situations. The father of my vanquish friend died in a motorcycle accident because he was not wearing his helmet. He had crashed his motorcycle into a car on the opposite side of the road when he lost control of the motorcycle. If only he were wearing the helmet, he would not have cracked his skull on the pavement when he belt the ground. He had no other injuries so he should have survived. The helmet spelled the difference. Personally, I had an accident on my mountain bike a few months back. It flew right from under me during a rocky downhill ride in the mountains. I tumbled farther than my bike did but survived the fall with only a few bruises and deep cuts. The helmet I was wearing took most of the blow. It is all cracked now and I had to replace it. I still keep it displayed on my shelf as a confabulation piece. To remind people I know of that share the same or similar activities about why it is important to wear a helmet. If lawmakers would only draw the time to talk to the survivors of such accidents, they will come to realize why laws such as these are important and have to be implemented. The rising cost of gasoline should not mean the rising body count on our streets either.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Use of technology, constructivism theory and project based-learning

The search conducted by the look workers from Universiti Sains Malaysia is to look into the usage of technology, constructivism opening and undertaking establish- memorizeing to accomplish a comprehensive wayal reform at the initiateing degree. Four instructors from simple school located in the province of Oregon where project-based accomplishment is implemented as an of consequence focal point of the school course of study had been chosen as participants. A qualitative methodological analysis was used to garner the trainings through interviews, observations and papers analysis to turn to the research inquiry sing the usage of constructivism in a project-based acquisition puting in an simple school. base on this research, it was found that the instructors did non do pre-planned attempts to incorporate elements of project-based acquisition, constructivism and engineering at the same time to execute a synergetic relationship. The instructors used assortment of cultivation m ethods such as treatments, custodies on activities, picture presentations, field trips and conveying external experts into schoolroom to do the pupils focal point and engage in the activities. However, they were non truly incorporating the constructivist rules in larning. This is inconsistent with their positive response on employ constructivism in schoolroom. The research workers found that there was a big spread between the research-based theories and schoolroom patterns. The used of educational engineering was excessively limited. The instructors were more likely to utilise conventional stuffs like books and printed textual in writing stuffs than utilizing electronic engineering, although each category has calculation machines. There atomic number 18 some suggestions on how interactive relationship of the acquisition theories, engineering and project-based acquisition can be achieved in schoolroom from the research workers at the terminal of the article.Part BThe research article Synergizing teaching method, larning theory and engineering in direction How can it be done? is well-nigh the usage of constructivism ( larning theory ) and engineering in project-based acquisition ( teaching method ) in simple school. Based on this research, it was found that the instructors did non do pre-planned attempts to unite elements of project-based acquisition, constructivism and engineering to execute a interactive relationship. However, to some extent, some of the findings atomic number 18 applicable in Malaysia as it benefits the pupils and besides instructors.The instruction method ( teaching method ) used in the schoolroom is project-based larning. Project-based acquisition can be defined as a comprehensive instructional attack to prosecute pupils in sustained, concerted investigating ( Bransford & A Stein, 1993 ) . Harmonizing to current research ( Thomas, Mergendoller, & A Michaelson, 1999 Brown & A Campione, 1994 ) , undertakings be complex under takings, based on disputing inquiries, that serve to form and drive activities, which taken as a whole sum to a significant project.This means that the pupils are given the chances to do probe on the subject to develop their apprehension of the constructs or theories and present their cognition in their ain ways.In relation to Malayan schoolroom, this project-based acquisition can be applied to prosecute the pupils with the lesson. In the instruction and larning rules of Primary School Integrated Curriculum or besides known as KBSR, it states that undertaking is one of the techniques to vouch instruction and larning effectivity ( Choong, 2008 ) . This is because project-based larning gives them the chance to research on their ain sing the subject being taught. It helps them to get the cognition more belatedly as they are the 1 who involve in the act of garnering the information and showing their thought based on their ain ways. For illustration in larning Science, the pupils ha ve to carry on experiments to verify the constructs or theories that they learn. From here, it involves find larning which means that the pupils actively creates cognition based on the experiments ( Snowman & A Biehler, 2006 ) . Furthermore, the project-based acquisition is non merely restricted in Science category, since the undertakings are adaptable to different learning state of affairss ( Blumenfeld et al. , 1991 ) . This means that the undertaking besides can be used in other categories like Mathematics, English and so on. Through project-based acquisition, the pupils interact to interchange their sentiments and thoughts and larn to collaborate among themselves. Here, it promotes the sense of answerability in the pupils as they will experience responsible in taking set actively in the undertaking. Yet, indispensable counsel is needed particularly from the instructor to do certain that the undertaking can be carried out swimmingly and the pupils are on the right path in makin g their undertaking.Based on the research, we can happen that there is limited application of constructivist rules in the schoolroom. The instructors did utilize the rules yet it is non truly stress during the lesson. Harmonizing to Woolfolk ( 2010 ) , constructivism emphasizes on the active function of scholars in constructing apprehension and doing sense of information . It means that, the scholars themselves construct their ain cognition based on their anterior cognition or experiences. The anterior cognition gives impact on the acquisition of the pupils as the pupils have to link their old cognition with the new information to organize meaningful apprehension. There are two constructivist fluctuations which are cognitive constructivism and societal constructivism. Harmonizing to Snowman & A Biehler ( 2006 ) , cognitive constructivism emphasizes the consequence of one s cognitive procedures on meaningful larning while societal constructivism emphasizes the consequence of oth er people s statements and point of position on meaningful acquisition . Both are of entailment in developing the pupils potencies and abilities in structuring their cognition.In relation to Malayan schoolroom, constructivism is applicable particularly in assisting to develop the originative and particular thought among the pupils. In configuration with rational development which emphasized in the National Philosophy of Education, focal point is given in believing accomplishments in KBSR ( Choong, 2008 ) . Thinking accomplishments here advert to creative and critical thought. Harmonizing to Choong, both are inter-related since the purpose is to enable the pupils to render, evaluate and use the information received for determination devising and job resolution. By utilizing constructivism in the schoolroom, it helps teacher to ease the acquisition to be more meaningful for the pupils. Students will happen the acquisition is synergistic and assist them in developing their thoug ht. In using this theory in schoolroom, instructor should be able to associate the lesson with the pupils experience. This is supported by Nesamalar, et Al ( 20005 ) as they province that the students will be more easy understood the elements of his ain immediate environment than that which is foreign and distant . For case in English linguistic communication schoolroom, if a instructor wants to learn about defilement, he or she should come out with suited pre-reading activity, while reading activity and besides post reading activity. Pre reading activity is normally based on the pupils anterior cognition sing the subject. Teacher can motivate the pupils by inquiring them what they understand with the term pollution and are they cognizant with pollution jobs or non. From here, the pupils will seek to utilize their old cognition and reply to the instructor. The pupils are really linking their old cognition with the new cognition to organize meaningful apprehension. Lapp goes to p ost reading activity. For station reading activity, the instructor might inquire the pupils how they feel about pollution and ways to get the better of the pollution. From the activity, it enhances the originative and critical thought accomplishments of the pupils as they have to come out with their ain replies based on the subject.Based on the research, the application of engineering is limited since the instructors prefer to utilize traditional instructional stuffs like books and other print-based textual in writing stuffs in the category although each category has computing machines. In relation to Malayan schoolroom, there are instructors who still utilizing books in instruction and acquisition procedure. Although it seems traditional, instructors believe that books help in their instruction. slightly instructors refuse to utilize engineering in their instruction because engineering is clip devouring ( Chong et al, 2005 ) . However, instructors are advised to utilize engineerin g in their lesson since the usage of engineering in instruction in Malaysia is really of import as one of the tools to accomplish Vision 2020 to enable Malaysia to be one of the universe category instruction suppliers. Through engineering tools like computing machines, pupils learn as the computing machines support cognition building, geographic expedition, acquisition by making, larning by discoursing and larning by reflecting ( Snowman & A Biehler,2006 ) . Besides that, engineering promotes greater coaction among pupils and encourages communicating and the sharing of cognition ( Becta, 2003 as cited in Chong et Al, 2005 ) .It is really of import for instructors to be able to incorporate instruction method, larning theory and engineering in learning and larning procedure to organize a interactive relationship. The three elements should be presented together non in isolation signifier in order to bring forth meaningful lesson to the pupils. This integrate is used to accomplish a comprehensive instructional transmutation at school degree. This research helps instructors to pull off their schoolroom better and affects instructors as pedagogues for since it is parallels with like a shot schoolroom on certain grade. Through these findings, it helps instructors to reflect on their ain learning whether they have successfully incorporating the three elements which are project-based acquisition, constructivism and engineering in the schoolroom. Some instructors might be cognizant with the larning theory but are they practising it in the schoolroom? The instructors who are practising the larning theory in schoolroom are those who truly understand the acquisition theory every bit good as the pupils demands ( Rio Sumarni Sharafuddin, 2007 ) . Therefore, this research acts as benchmark for instructors in Malaysia to mensurate the effectivity of using teaching method, larning theory and engineering in presenting the cognition to the pupils.There are few suggestions o n how to advance these three elements in schoolroom. First, project-based acquisition should be an of import portion of the school course of study. This is because project-based acquisition is students-centered which means that it focuses on the pupils understanding by their ain instead than being spoon-feed by the instructors. Through undertaking based acquisition, the rules of constructivist are indirectly emerging during the acquisition. Here, the pupils learn to build their ain acquisition and associate their anterior cognition to heighten their thought and bring forth meaningful acquisition. Besides that, engineering like computing machines besides needs to be approachable and accessible to instructors and pupils. Harmonizing to Rio Sumarni Sharafuddin ( 2007 ) With the outgrowth of computing machine engineerings, the constructivist positions in instruction and acquisition seemed easier to be implemented. This is because computing machine engineering is able to back up many of the rules of constructivist acquisition. Although the field of instructional design has evolved greatly, it would be nonmeaningful if these theories are ignored or even off worst non practiced by the practicians .Furthermore, by utilizing engineering, it helps both instructors and pupils in garnering the information from the net and helps to wider their positions. At the same clip, the rules of constructivist are besides embedded indirectly during learning and larning procedure. Another suggestion is instructors need practical cognition in incorporating elements of teaching method, larning theory and engineering. Some instructors might hold great content cognition on the topic they taught, but are they truly incorporating larning theory in presenting the cognition? Practical cognition helps instructors to present effectual lesson to the pupils. Furthermore, larning theory like constructivist is really useable in assisting the instructors to develop practical cognition in instruc tion.For me personally, I realized that it is non easy to integrate these three elements during lesson. I have to be adept flock in order to transport out meaningful lesson for my pupils. Using constructivist rules in my instruction pattern can heighten my pupils thought and their cognitive development. Here, as a hereafter instructor, I should be prepared in making independent larning environment for my pupils. Although it seems rather hard to accomplish, I must remain positive because postcode is impossible. As a instructor, I should believe positively so that I will be able to incorporate the three elements which are project-based acquisition, constructivism and engineering in my category successfully. Thus, farther research should be done on this issue as it is really important for instructors and besides future instructors to understand how to organize interactive relationship between the three elements in instruction and acquisition procedure.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Everything Happens for a Reason †Jumakha Essay

Sometimes people come into your smell and you know right away that they were meant to be there. They attend to some sort of purpose ,teach you a lesson or help figure out who you argon or you want to become. You never know who these people whitethorn beyour roommates,your neighour,professor,long lost friend,lover or even a complete stranger who,when you lock eyes with them,you know that very moment that they will affect your life in some profound way. And sometimes things happen to you and at the time they seem horrible,painful and unfair,but in reflection you realize that without overcoming those obstacles you would never have realized your potential,strength,will top executive of heart. Everything happens for a reason.Nothing happens by chance or by means of good or bad-luck.Illness,injury,love,lost moments or true greatness and sheer stupidity all betide to test the limits of the soul. Without these small tests,if they be events,illnesses or relationships,life would be like a smooth paved,straight,flat road to nowhere.Safe and comfortable but dull and utterly pointless.The people you happen upon who affect your life and successes and downfalls you experience,they are the ones who create who you are. Even the bad experience can be learned fromThose lessons are the hardest and probably the most important ones If someone hurts you,betrays you,or breaks your heartforgive them,for they have helped you learn about trust and the important of being cautious to whom you open your heart. If someone loves you,love them back unconditionally,not only because they love you,but because they are teaching you to love and opening your heart and eyesto things you would have never seen or felt without them.Make every day count.Appreciate every moment and defer from it everything that you possibly can,for you may never be able to experience it again. Talk to people you have never talked to before,and actually listen,let yourself fall in love,break free and chasten your sights high. You can make of your life anything you wish.Create your own life and then go out and live it.I wish you all the best in your endeavors as salubrious as struggles in life.Have a fighting spirit and never hestitate to get back in the struggle

Thursday, May 23, 2019

A Comparison of Celebrity and Expert Endorsers on Advertising Effectiveness

Table of Contents Ac companionshipment Abstract Table of Contents Chapter virtuoso submission 1. 1 Background to Topic 1. 2 Fashion Field and Skin bang Product Chapter Two Literature Review 2. 1Advertising Endorser 2. 1. 1Celebrity 2. 1. 2 skilled 2. 2 Endorser plausibleness 2. 2. 1 Trus dickensrthiness 2. 2. 2 ripeness 2. 2. 3 attraction 2. 3 Advertising Effectiveness 2. 3. 1 check off Attitude 2. 3. 2 Attitude towards advertizing 2. 3. 3 secure Intention 2. 4 Match-up Hypothesis 2. 5 Information solveing of the AdvertisementChapter Three Chapter intravenous feeding Methodology. 4. 1 Quantitative enquiry 4. 2 Questionnaire Design 4. 3 Pilot Test 4. 4 Data analysis Techniques 4. 4 interrogatory credibleness of Endorsers 4. 5 canvasing the Product Match-Up Hypothesis 4. 6 Testing Advertisement Message Process 4. 7 Testing Advertising Effectiveness Chapter Five Findings and Analysis 5. 1 Result of Reliability Test 5. 2 Results of Credibility of Endorsers 5. 3 Results o f Testing the Product Match-Up Hypothesis 5. 4 Evaluation Impact on Advertisement Message Process . 5 Evaluation Advertising Effectiveness Chapter Six Discussion and Conclusion Appendix References Chapter 1Introduction Chapter 1Introduction In conception an announce campaign, an influencing persuasion is an important factor, overlap readers is signifi laughingstockt towards the transmission of message among the bulls eye and consumers and they often contribute to an advertisements persuasiveness for numerous consumers. Advertising contributor is one of promotional strategies which are often seen in cursory life.Its main purpose is to use a famous, professional or pleasant subscriber to grab consumers attention in a short period of time, in order to increase the effectiveness of the advertisement. It is important for subscribers to achieve the object of conference with consumers. Research finds that advertisements with a reliable reader could attract consumers attent ion, raise filth awareness, and build unique note image (Zajonc and Markus,1982). If a business potty mete prohibited overlap subscriber considerfully to match up with harvest-festival props, it jackpot produce a influence effect to a cross appear. therefore, understanding how consumers comprehend product indorsers, and knowing which personas of readers would stool the best effect to the advertisement is signifi stopt for marketers. This query will mainly focus to research on skin- attending products ratifiers by the measure of their believability, and how they make the announce effectiveness. 1. 1 Background to Topic 1. 2 Fashion Field and Skin business organization products Fashion is a business of wide variety from regular apparel business to beauty and health safekeeping products. The fashion discipline is passing segmented and overlaps with some other fields, especi tot allyy with the cosmetics and skin care roducts. any(prenominal) of the theater fashion brand names may not definitely cor react to the apparel business but other kinds of products. One of the characteristic of the fashion field is that it is constantly re-forming in strategic cooperation and alliances. Fashion companies such as Fendi, Polo Ralph Lauren, Kenzo, and Louis Vuitton are practicing the strategic integration. For example, Christian Dior is office of LVMH limited, which is the largest luxury association and group in the world, besides include cosmetics products and skin care products in their brands.The structure of the fashion field is obscured mainly by licensing and franchising strategy fashion companies may manufacture products which belong to a particular line in the structure. For example, Donna Karan International licenses its name to Estee Lauder, and Polo Ralph Lauren licenses the fragrances and skin-care products to LOreal. LVMH, Chanel and Prada agree their own brand name lines in skin care products. Some skin care brands may belong to the same fashion organization, though the brands are in totally contrasting names and management structure.The identity of the famous fashion company would give their products a competitive gain, which are the symbolic exchange and the commodity exchange. It would establish, maintain or strengthen a brand identity. Skin-care products advertisements with contributors is not hard to be seen in antithetical media, household skin-product brands such as Loreal, Neutrogena or Shiseido has spent numerous money on hiring diametrical endorsers for the brand and new products. Generally, dickens types of advertisement endorsers have been mainly been utilise in these advertisements fame and undecomposed.There are number of studies asshole be found that how several(predicate) endorsers learn the consumers in different fields. However, there are few studies to focus that at the affinity of different endorsers and skin care product brand. Skin care product is a special category com pared with other different products. It is considered twain hedonic and utilitarian product. There are different categories of skin care product, such as the cobalt ultramarine plectron, hand cream or UV-protection cream. Therefore, the skin-care product is twain attractive-related and health-related.Customer needs adequate information and sufficient keenness prove and advice for them to bargain for these products. Research shows that the extent of reference- comprehend dexteritys and knowledge of the endorser in the tooth root effectiveise would make supreme influence to the advertisement, such as the skin care nears are critical to influence in announce (Chawla,Dave, and Barr 1994) however, some research suggest the sources characteristic attractive feature, such as celebrities are important to persuasion (Kamins and Gupta 1994 Patzer 1983).Although the perspectives are diverse, source believability which combined of both attractiveness and expertness is critical to m ake influence to advertisements towards the audience. Skin care product marketers would typically employ a product endorser with high credibleness to advertise the product. Therefore, it is momentous for marketers to know which type of endorsers and how endorsers would make an advertisement worth age and effective, in addition to this, whom could make practised communication with customers.The purpose of the study is to seek whether endorser credibleness has a positive effect on publicize effectiveness in the skin care product. This study would overly explore which type of endorser in the field of skincare products would make much influence, and how they influence the consumers. Chapter 2- Literature review 2. 1Advertising Endorser According to Federal Trade complaint (FTC), any advertising message reflects spokespersons or endorsers opinion, belief, character, and experience that make consumers believe is called endorsement.Advertising endorsers are often seen on TV, newspa per, magazine, or direct escape advertisements in daily life. Using the endorsers popularity, it could present the public assistances of the endorsed product and make consumers produce dependability on the product. (McCracken,1989) Using advertising endorser to promote a product is a in truth popular marketing strategy. Researchers similarly found that the reliability of advertising spokespersons is one of critical factors to influence get intention, and the higher(prenominal) the reliability is, the higher the positive advertising and brand spots are (Laffery Goldsmith, 1999).An advertisement can catch consumers attention and increase brand awareness (McCracken, 1989), and transfer consumers feelings onto the product and produce a good postage (Biswas et al. , 2006). If spokespersons can express a positive office on the advertised product, it will create an intensive preference to consumers and connect the product with the spokespersons (Chen Chang, 2001). Study suggested that with a successful endorsement, the recall of product information and brand recognition would be enhanced, it would positive influences the attitude towards the advertisement and products. Liu et al, 2007) Different research proposed four main types of advertising endorsers including celebrities, experts, CEO and typical consumers to streamlet the effectiveness of communication between the endorsers and consumers through advertisement (Freiden, 1984 Wang, 2002). The outfit of the endorser is suggested to create positive attitude toward the consumers (Chaiken, 1979). McGuire (1985) also suggested that endorser which is known and likable towards the audience may bring persuasiveness to the advertisement. 2. 1. 1Celebrity EndorserSchiffman and Kanuk (2007) defined celebrities to public and famous figures. Celebrity commonly has a linkage with the source attractiveness. Research has found that there is a linkage between the glory attractiveness and attitude changes toward adverti sements (Chaiken 1979 Caballero and Pride, 1984). Companies usually use celebrity to be the endorser of product in order to increase the popularity or attraction, making audience to have a positive attitude toward endorsed products, the brand and the advertisement. Research supported the celebrity endorser is adequate for different types of products.It is generally shows that celebrity endorser make positive contribution in different aspects like brand awareness (Till 1998), brand recall (Friedman 1979), attitude toward the advertisement Kamins 1989 Frieden 1984 Tripp, Jensen,and Carlson 1994), and also purchase intention (Ohanian, 1991). Research also shows that celebrity endorser would generate positive attitude towards brand recall, attitude towards the advertisement, and also purchase intention (Wang 2002). Celebrity with high expertise tends to have higher direct of sources believability and combiningworthiness. Buhr, Simpson, and Pryor 1987). Studies found that celebrity e ndorser would be perceived higher set up for likeability attribute by the consumer, comparing to an expert, CEO or customer endorsers (Freiden, 1984). However, in the same research, it did not show that celebrity endorsers have a significant advantage when compared to other types of endorsers in the measure of expertise, believability, product quality and trustworthiness. Celebrity endorser would generally create a positive perception to consumers in sources attractiveness in terms of credibility perceptions.Researchers have found that celebrity endorsers have higher credibility to make the product be to a greater extent desirable and also higher the image of the product quality Consumers are associated with endorsers image when using the product while the endorsers image has been transferred to the product. (Ronald E. Goldsmith, Barbara A. Lafferty and Stephen J. Newell, 2000) Research also suggest that celebrity endorsement can increase brand and product recall (Clark and Horstm an, 2003). 2. 1. 2 good Endorser intelligent endorser is perceived as a person who has extensive skill or knowledge in a particular field.Expertise is the extent of the communication source which has relevant knowledge and skills. The trustworthiness attribute is an significant source for the expert endorsers, which makes the consumers to have a perception that the advertisement is believable. (Hovland, Janis, and Kelley,1953). Hass (1981) suggests that the expert endorsers have an advantage on source credibility in terms of the expertise and trustworthiness. Research suggests that endorser who has higher take aim in expertise or trustworthiness, would be more effective when compared to low-expertise sources (Hass 1981 Dholakia 1978).Research also finds that expert endorsers would be more persuasive when compared to the endorsers who have slight(prenominal) expertise in the persuasion theory. (Ohanian 1990 Stemthal, Phillips, and Dholakia 1978). The leg of influence of the expe rt endorser is moderated by variables such as message comprehension (Ratneshwar and Chaiken 1991), placement of the expert source in relation to the message arguments, (Homer and Kahle 1990 Stemthal, Dholakia, and Leavitt 1978), and fit between the expert source and the product (Till and Busier 2000).An endorsement from a credible or expert endorser would influence the perspective, also the consumers behavior and attitudes (Belch and Belch 2004, p. 169). The receiver is motivated to have a positive and objective sense toward the products and brand when the endorser is an expert, since the audiences believe the message from the endorser is accurate and positive. Till and Busier (1998, 2000) manipulated the expertise of a sham person and the fit of the product, the force shows using expertise would create a significant positive birth towards the brand attitude and purchase intentions.The research shows expertise source is significant when compared to the attractiveness source in di fferent advertisements and products. 2. 2Endorser Credibility According to Ohanian (1990), endorser credibility can be defined as as a communicators positive characteristics that affect the receivers acceptance of a message. It is also a way that can enhance the message of an advertisement. (Anderson, 1970) Dimensions can be found in the previous studies of endorser credibility.Typically, endorsers credibility can be separated as three dimensions trustworthiness, attractiveness, and expertise (e. g. , Homer and Kahle 1990 Ohanian 1990, 1991 Stemthal, Dholakia, and Leavitt 1978). The credibility would show how effective of an endorser in terms of the personal attributes towards the consumers. Goldsmith, Lafferty, and Newell (2000) found that endorser credibility positively influence the attitudes toward the advertisement, and also brand attitude. A high credibility of an endorser is considered significant in influence acceptance.A consumer is more likely to accept the content of the advertisements with a credible endorser (Sternthal, Phillips, and Dholakia 1978). Danwshvary and Schwer (2000) also suggest that in an advertisement with a high credible endorser, purchase intention would be positively affected. According to Khatri(2006) , high credible endorser would also enhance the recall of the product. Research found that higher levels of endorsers credibility would have a significant association with attitudes toward the advertisement and purchase intention (Craig and McCann, 1978 Woodside and Davenport, 1974).The dimensions of attractiveness and expertise have generated additional interest to determine how these attributes in an endorser individually enhance advertising effectiveness (e. g. , Homer and Kahle 1990 Kamins 1990 Maddux and Rogers 1980 Patzer 1983 Till and Busier 1998, 2000). 2. 2. 1 trustiness Trustworthiness is the level of consumers trust toward the endorser and advertising message (Hovland et al. 1953). It also misbegottens the general believ ability of an endorser. Research has suggested the trustworthiness of the endorser would affect the advertising effectiveness.Miller and Baseheart (1969) found that when the endorser was perceived to be accepted, the advertisement would be more effective to influence consumers attitudes. McCinnies and Ward (1980) find that the expertise and trustworthiness would influence endorsers credibility and persuasiveness. They channelised that the endorser with both expert and trustworthy would generate the opinion change of consumers. Trustworthiness moreover refers to the downrighty, believability and integrity of an endorser (Erdogan 1999).Therefore, honesty is in the trustworthiness attribute in this study. 2. 2. 2Expertise Expertise is one of the fundamental dimensions of source credibility and is the knowledge sources are perceived to possess active the product they are endorsing (Homer and Kahle 1990 Ohanian 1990). Recent studies on source expertise indicates that the expertise at tribute has a positive influence on attitude change (Maddux and Rogers 1980 Till and Busier 1998, 2000) and purchase intention (Till and Busier 2000). 2. 2. 3 AttractivenessIn terms of attractiveness, it represents that advertising endorsers can catch consumers attention to a product (Ohania, 1990 Miciak Shanklin, 1994 Goldsmith, Laffery, Newell, 2000). Research shows that the marketers prefer to use attractive endorser in order to gain the likability and positive attitude toward the advertisement. Some of the research may group attractiveness attributes in source attractiveness itself, however, attractiveness can also be as an attribute of source credibility in advertisments (McCracken, 1989 Ohanian, 1990).In the research of Maddux and Rogers (1980), likability is considered to be a test variable of attractiveness attribute in endorser credibility. Therefore, likability would also be tested as attractiveness variable in the study, it is employed as the measure of homological vali dity of attractiveness. Advertising Effectiveness Generally, advertising effectiveness is the attributes of brand attitude, attitude towards the advertisement and purchase intention attributes. (Gurel Atay, Eda, 2001 Friedman, Hershey H, 1976 David Strutton, 2008)Numerous researches have turn out the direct and significant relationship of brand attitude, attitude towards the advertisement and purchase intention attributes. (e. g. , Goldsmith et al. 1999 2000 2002 Goldberg, et al, 1990 Mitchell et al. 1981 Mackenzie, Lutz, and Belch, 1986). However, research also can be found to group these three variables together in order to test a more macro view towards the effectiveness of the advertisement. (Gurel Atay, Eda, 2001 Friedman, Hershey H, 1976 David Strutton, 2008) 2. 5 Purchase IntentionAccording to Shamdasani (2001), purchase intention can be defined as the possibility of a customer stealing a product or making a recommendation for product. ) It is also a extremity of the deman d for product information, purchasing, evaluation, consumption, and disposal of a product or service. Purchase intentions also means the choice that a consumer would probably make in future course of action. (Bagozzi,1983). According to Fishbein and Ajzen model, higher purchase intention will lead higher purchase willingness. According to Zeithamal (1988), perceived value will influence purchase intention. . 6 Brand Attitude Brand Attitude can be defined as evaluation of the brand from the consumer. It may consist an emotional motivation toward a brand and its product. The motivation could be cognitive or logical toward the particular brand. In recent researches, it has proved that using of endorsers credibility has a positive influence on brand attitudes of the consumers (Seno and Lukas, 2005). Agarwal and Malhotra (2005) have also defined that brand attitude is a general evaluative judgment of a brand. It breaks the process of the brand product, reputation and the benefits. 2. A ttitude towards advertisement Attitudes toward the ads can be generally defined as a predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure situation (MacKenzie, Lutz and Belch, 1986). Attitudes toward the ads would contain affective reactions and evaluations. (Baker and Lutz, 2000). Research shows that attitudes toward the ads are influenced by a process set of brand or non-brand. (Biehal, Stephen and Curlo, 1992 Hastak and Olson, 1989 Madden, Allen and Twible, 1988 Gardner, 1985 Homer, 1990). 2. 8 Product Match-up HypothesisProduct Match-up Hypothesis can be defined as the match-up theory between an endorsers and a products attributes. McCracken (1989) and Kahle (1985) suggest the celebrity endorser create better inherent match and congruency effect than other types of endorsers by having higher level of attractiveness. Researches based on the matchup supposal find that attractiveness is a significant deter minant of advertising effectiveness. (Kahle and Homer, 1985 Till and Busler, 1998) suggests that its importance is limited by the degree to which attractiveness fits well with the advertised product (e. . Kamins,1990). The product match-up hypothesis is focus on product-endorser fit based on endorser attractiveness. Research suggests that the attractiveness of a celebrity endorser is more favorable attitudes to related the product which is attractiveness-related . Product match- up is the congruence between endorsers and product. The match-up hypothesis (e. g. Kamins, 1990) suggests that endorsers are more effective there is a fit between the advertising endorser and the endorsed product. 2. 4 Information ProcessingAccording to Kahle Homer (1985), consumer usually sees the information as relevance when it satisfies their need. The ELM is a persuasion model to predict the influence information process of the advertisement of different types of endorser. (Petty Cacioppo, 1981a, 1986 a, 1986b) suggests that there are two route, the central route and peripheral route, whereas the peripheral route is more likely to prove that endorser relationship with the information affect of the advertisement. ELM posits that a source discriminative stimulus does not serve as a simple acceptance or ejection cue but may be considered together with all other information in the recipients attempt to measure out the merits of the arguments and the advocacy. Studies have found that endorsers credibility has a significant relationship toward ELM and information processing of the advertisement (Homer Kahle, 1990 Petty Cacioppo, 1981b, 1986a, 1986b Petty et al. , 1991). Mehta (1994) also found that the celebrity endorser would influence consumers to have more thoughts about the endorsers, however, and the fewer toward the product and brand.A different type of endorser such as experts would influence consumers to generate fewer thoughts about the endorser but led to more thoughts a bout the brand and product featured Chapter 3 Research Hypothesis and Conceptual theoretical account 3. 1Introduction According to research purposes and literature reviews, the study proposes the research skeleton in the closet as shown in Figure 1. 3. 2 Research Hypothesis H1 Endorser credibility would significantly affect advertisement effectiveness Celebrity vs ExpertH2 Celebrity endorser has a better performance in the general measure of Endorser Credibility than expert endorser H3 Celebrity endorsers has a better performance in the measure of attractiveness attributes than expert endorser H4 Expert endorser has a better performance in the measure of trustworthiness attributes than celebrity endorser H5 Expert endorser has a better performance in the measure of expertise attributes than celebrity endorser Product Match-UpH6 Endorser credibility would significantly affect product match-up hypothesis H7 Celebrity endorser would generate a better match up effect towards the prod uct than expert endorser Information Process H8 Endorser credibility would significantly affect information process of the advertisement H9 Consumer is more likely to process the information of the advertisement when the endorser is an expert, than a celebrity H10 Product match up and Information Process would positively moderate the relationship between endorser credibility and advertising effectiveness Conceptual Framework Chapter 4Methodology . 1 Questionnaire Design In order to appraise the relative advertisement effectiveness between celebrity and expert endorsers, two advertising executions were tested across home run advertisements for two different type skin-care products an aqua cream and hand cream with body emulsion. A celebrity advertisement and an expert advertisement represented each product. In this research, the celebrity is person who is publicly recognized and could direct and communicate to consumers by their reputation in the advertisement. On the other hand, a n expert is a person represents expertise of the product and skin care.The experts who appeared in the advertisement standard has been noted a professional doctor of skin care and dermatologist. They have no public notoriety but appear in an advertisement for representing the authority of the product. The samples are based on real print advertisements (see appendix 1 and 2), in order to increase the authentication. Famous Hong Kong singer Kandy, a member of the band Sugar Club, is the endorser of the aqua cream advertisement on the other hand, famous model Gaile is selected as endorser of the hand cream and body emulsion cream.The expert endorser is from the real print advertisement of Neutrogena, however, for the expert endorser, we created a fancied endorser, as the names and their scope of profession have changed to fit this sample research. The use of a created endorser offers a benefit of controlling the experiment. Although endorsers are usually well-known, there can be a sig nificant amount of variation in subjects knowledge and attitude toward any devoted endorser.By using a created endorser, we minimize the amount of variation in subjects knowledge thereby strengthening the statistical power of the analysis. In order to avoid brand perception of the audience, the products in the sample advertisements has used the brand name Super which does exist in the reality market, instead of the real brand names of the products. The research selected two categories of skin care products aqua defense cream and hand cream and body emulsion. In order to minimize brand familiarity effects, a fictitious brand name, super was used. 4. 1. Questionnaire Structure and Details The questionnaire used for this study consisted of five parts targeting different aspects of information about consumers attitude on different endorsers advertisement and the influence of advertisement effectiveness. The aim of this study was stated in the beginning and followed by a notes explaini ng the terminologies used in the questionnaire. For the scale of data measurement, five-point Likert scales were used in the questions of part A and part B sections for measuring the attitudes and quantifies the opinion of the consumers.Likert scale is a set of avowals that ask answerings to express their level of agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale (Churchill, 2005). For the remaining parts, they were consisted of single and multiple selections of answer. 1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Neutral 4= oppose 5=Strongly Agree 4. 1. 3. 1 Part A of the Questionnaire The number 1 part of the questionnaire aimed to obtaining data about the answerings purchase experience on skin care products as well as their knowledge and experience about current practice of different types of endorsers advertisement, the source of information is also included.The respondents are required to indicate how they receive the information about endorsement and which type(s) of endorsers were fam iliar with them. 4. 1. 3. 2 Part B of the Questionnaire This part is aimed to focus on the aqua cream advertisement, which represents the skin care product type which is attractive-related. Two super aqua cream product print advertisements were shown in this part. This advertisement is a real advertisement from the brand Garnier. This first advertisement is endorsed by famous Hong Kong singer Kandy, a member of the band Sugar Club, who is the veridical endorser for Garnier.The second one is endorsed by a fictitious expert endorser, named as Albert Li, noted as a professional doctor of skin care. The context of the advertisement contains the product features of the cream, and comparison with other brands in order to show the effect of the cream. The content of two advertisements are exactly the same, however, only the endorser is changed in order to test the effect of these two types of endorsers. There are 17 questions for each advertisements, it is a set of tilts regarding the at tributes of the endorsers, and the attributes of the advertisement.The attributes were based from the source credibility models, product match-up hypothesis, and advertising effectiveness which were suggested by previous studies regarding advertisements with endorsers. 4. 1. 3. 3 Part C of the Questionnaire This part is aimed to focus on the hand cream and boy emulsion advertisement, which represents the skin care product type which is health-related. Two super aqua cream product print advertisements were shown in this part. This advertisement is a real advertisement from the brand Neutrogena.This first advertisement is endorsed by famous Hong Kong model Gaile, who is the ex-wife of Hong Kong famous singer Leon Lai. The second one is endorsed by an expert endorser, named as Robert Kwon, noted as a dermatologist, who is the actual endorser for Neutrogena, however, in the actual advertisement, the endorser is a a regional director of professional marketing. The context of the advertis ement mainly contains the product features of the hand cream and the body emulsion. The content of two advertisements are exactly the same, however, only the endorser is changed in order to test the effect of these two types of endorsers.The structure of the questions is the same as part B section. 4. 1. 3. 4 Part D of the Questionnaire This was the final section of the questionnaire, four questions were asked in order to find out the demographic information of the respondents. Respondents were required to provide their gender, age, educational level and income. The information would be used to test the difference response from different demographic group, mainly the educational level and income, since the target group is selected to be three-year-old female adults in generation Y. 4. 2 Questions Analysis and Discussion Guide The mickle is set in two main sections.One scale is used to pass judgment endorser credibility, including the aspect of attractiveness, expertise, image, li keability and trustworthiness. The survey also included questions related to the advertising effectiveness in aspects of brand attitude, attitude toward the advertisement and purchase intention. Message processing and product and endorser match- up issues would also be included in the questions. The questions were grouped in order to analysis the relations between variables. Each respondent was shown two print advertisements of different skin care product and were asked to complete the questionnaire.In each case respondents were exposed to advertisements for of two products including a celebrity, and an expert endorser. 3. 2. 1 Testing Credibility of Endorsers To test the credibility of endorsers, the attributes by previous studies are choose. The attributes would be attractiveness (DeSarbo and Harshman 1985), trustworthiness (DeSarbo and Harshman 1985), expertise (DeSarbo and Harshman 1985 Simpson and Kahler 1980-81 Wynn 1987), likability (DeSarbo and Harshman 1985) and believabil ity (Simpson and Kahler 1980-81 Wynn 1987).In the questionnaire, 5 statements would refer to 5 different attributes from the source credibility model. The endorser is attractive is to test the attractiveness variable, The endorser is trustworthy is to test the trustworthiness variable, The endorser is professional is to test the expertise variable, The endorser is honest is to test the believability variable and The endorsers image is positive is to test the likability variable. These 5 attributes would be grouped to be the Credibility level of each endorser in the followed analysis. 4. 2. Testing the Product Match-Up Hypothesis As the product match-up hypothesis is not the main focus of the research, only two statements in the questionnaire was asked to test the hypothesis, The endorser in the advertisement makes good match with the product and The endorser helps to understand the function of the product was asked to figured out if the audience considered the endorsers do good mat ch with the product and helped them to understand the function of the products. The result of this hypothesis would be tested if it is a factor to influence the advertising effectiveness. . 2. 3 Testing Advertisement Message Process One statement was asked to understand if the respondents would read the content message of the advertisement, besides the endorsers image. The result of this part would be analyzed with if different endorsers have influence for the audience to process the image, and this question would also analyzed with the advertising effectiveness attributes to see if there is a relation between audience process the advertisement message and the effectiveness of the advertisement. . 2. 4 Testing Advertising Effectiveness Three attributes were combined to consider the effectiveness of the advertisement Brand attitude, Attitude towards the Advertisements and Purchase Intention. 4 statements were set to test the brand attitude towards the advertisements, which were The e ndorser enhances my ability to recognize the brand, This advertisement projects a good brand image, This advertisement helps to recall the product features and This advertisement helps to recall the brand.Another 4 statements were also set to test the attitude towards the advertisements, which were This advertisement projects a sense of good quality towards the product, This advertisement projects a pleasant feeling, This advertisement is reliable and This advertisement is persuasive. In addition, 1 statement was set to test the purchase intention of the audience towards the advertisement and endorsed product, which was This advertisement increases my intention to purchase the product. These three attributes would be the dependent variables to combine as advertising effectiveness.They would be analyzed with the credibility of different endorsers, product match-up hypothesis and advertisement message process. 4. 3 Research Objective The vicenary survey is focused on the young female adults as the interviewees, which is in the demographic of generation Y. The age range of young is between 18and 30 years old, which are mostly in the student segment. In this group of people, they tend to be attracted by advertising, brand, and fashion. They are more familiar to celebrities and advertising from different types of media.In the meanwhile, they have more comprehensive understanding and relative matured self-norms. 4. 4 Pilot Test A pilot test was through in advance of distributing of the questionnaire for gathering information, this is to ensure the format and design of the questionnaire were effective and capable of obtaining required information for the researching objectives. Another important function of the pilot test to this study is that the sample population was asked to rank a set of selection criteria of celebrity and expert endorsers in order to refining the selection attributes for a more efficient analysis. 3 questionnaires were distributed and 20 quest ionnaires were returned with comments on the questionnaire design. Some amendment and adjustment was made to the questionnaire after reviewing the feedback of the sample population, the modification included adjusting the layout of the questions, use of questions wordings, partition of demographic data of respondents, and elimination of repeated questions. 4. 5 Distribution of the questionnaire Data were collected from a total of 203 respondents on the internet survey instrument.The survey is deal out by social network requests and e-mail request, which ensures that the target group of people could reach to the survey, and avoid people who is not in the target group doing the survey. The internet-based survey can also obtain the response from more population within a short period of time by not restricting by geographical constrain. 4. 6 Research process and design The research process follows the structure in figure. First, the problem of the research is fomulated, which is the c omparasion of expert and celebrity endorsers towards the credibility and advertising effectiveness.Then, an exploatory research is at the second procedure, by reviewing literature. Research framework and data collection methods are determinated at step three and step four. The following is designing samples and collecting data by internet-based survey. The data will be analysed to be the results of the research. Suggestions and recommendations would be made in the references of the results. Chapter 5 Result and Analysis Respondents Profile In the following section, basic demographic data of the respondents, including age, gender, education level, occupation and personal monthly income level, were reported.To be more specific, these descriptive data were summarized and presented with pie charts. Gender of Respondents Since the target respondent in this study is female, the questionnaire is mainly distributed to female interviewee. Therefore, there are totally 199 female and only 4 ma le respondents. The 4 male respondents are all from the internet survey. The female respondents have 98. 03% of sample population, while male respondents only have 1. 97%. Distribution of age group of the respondents The majority of respondents were 22-25 years old, which has 117 respondents and industrious 57. 64% of the sample population.The following largest group was age between 18-21 years old there were 51 respondents in this age group, with 25. 12% of the sample population. The contribution of the respondents in the age group 26-30 was 17. 24%, there were 35 respondents in this age group. Educational Level Over a half of the respondents educational level is above bachelors degree. 110 out of the 203 respondents, which are 54. 19 % of the sample population, are at the educational level of bachelors degree 68 of the respondents, having 33. 50% of the sample population, are at the tertiary (non-degree) educational level. 5 of the respondents (12. 32% of the population) are pos tgraduate level. Monthly Income The majority of the respondents monthly income is less than $5000, which is 89. 16% of the sample population (181 respondents). 16 out of the 203 respondents (7. 88% of the sample population) have the monthly income between $5000 and $10000. Only 6 of the respondents (2. 96% of the sample population) have the monthly income between $10001 and $20000. Purchase Frequency for respondents In the purchase frequency of skin care product, most of the respondents, with 48. 8% of the sample population (98 out of the 203 respondents) steal skin products 1 to 2 times a month. The following group is respondents who deprave skin care product 3 to 4 times a month, with 35. 47% (72 out of the 203 respondents). 10. 84%(22 out of the 203 respondents) of the respondents buy skin care products less than once a month and only 5. 42%(11 out of the 203 respondents) of the respondents buy skin care products more than 4 times a month. In the question of asking which skin-c are brands the respondents mostly buy, the result between brands is close. Shiseido Limiteds brand has the largest sample population, with 28. 8% of respondents (57 out of 203) claiming mostly buy their products the following is the Loreal Companys products, having 23. 63% respondents (50 out of 203) that mostly buy their products. 18. 72% (38 out of 203) and 17. 73% (22 out of 203)of respondents mostly buy skin care products of P&G Company and the LVMH Limited respectively. Only 10. 84% of respondents (22 out of 203) mostly buy the skin care products of Estee Lauder. Information towards the skin-care advertisements For the endorsement in skin-care product, the respondents mostly notice the celebrity endorsers and model endorsers, which have 45. 2% (92 out of 203) and 25. 62% (52 out of 203) of the sample population respectively. 17. 24% (35 out of 203)of the respondents noticed the expert endorsers in the advertisement. The following is the real customer endorsers, 8. 87% (18 out o f 203) of respondents have noticed their endorsement. Only 1. 97% (4 out of 203) of respondents noticed the CEO endorsers and 2 of the respondents in the survey havent noticed any endorsers advertising. The channels that respondents get the information of the skin care product advertisements were asked in the survey.Most of the respondents true the skin care product information from print media such as magazines and newspaper, which had 28. 57% (58 out of 203) of the respondents. 19. 7% (40 out of 203) of the respondents were acquiring skin care products information from TV, movie and internet. These two channels had the same population. 12. 81% (26 out of 203) of respondents were getting information from peers word-of-mouth. Direct mail and from outdoor billboard has the population of 9. 85% (20 out of 203) and 5. 42% (11 out of 203) respectively. The channel of radio, brands advertisements and sales personnel had the population of 2. 6% (5 out of 203 respondents), 0. 99% (2 out o f 203 respondents)and 0. 49%(1 out of 203 respondents), which were the channels least respondents getting information from. 4. 1 Result of Reliability Test As a key factor to determine the quality of measurement instruments, reliability was very important for assessing the internal consist multi-item scales of endorsers credibility and advertising effectiveness dimensions, Cronbachs alpha was used. It provides the coefficient of inter-item correlations and mensurable the internal consistency of various items. Referring to Cohen et al. 2007), the reliability level was marginally acceptable at 0. 6 and highly reliable at 0. 8 or above, while according to Pallant (2007), the Cronbachs alpha value above 0. 7 is considered acceptable and preferable when the values exceed 0. 8. Ohanians (1990) scale was used to assess the celebrity endorsers credibility. Items were chosen according to the item reliability of the scale. To measure credibility, the dependent variables attractiveness, trustw orthiness, expertise, likeability, and believability were selected. In section A, the celebrity endorser Kandy has a Cronbachs ? f . 962 towards the credibility. The Cronbachs ? for the expert endorsers credibility is . 860 in section A. In section B, the celebrity endorser Gaile has a Cronbachs ? of . 869 towards the credibility. The Cronbachs ? for the expert endorsers credibility is . 860 in section B Based on studies addressing advertising effectiveness (Biehal, Stephens and Curlo, 1992Craciun, Stephens and Madden, 2002 Gresham and Shimp, 1985 Spears and Singh,2004), brand attitude, attitude towards the advertisement and purchase intention were used to assess the effectiveness. The Cronbachs ? or the brand attitude in section A are . 893 and . 824 The Cronbachs ? for the attitude towards the brand in section A are . 806 and . 793. The Cronbachs ? for the brand attitude in section B are . 831 and . 712. The Cronbachs ? for the attitude towards the brand in section B are . 925 and . 908. Referring to Cohen et al. (2007), the reliability level was marginally acceptable at 0. 6 and highly reliable at 0. 8 or above, therefore, the items to be measured in this study is highly reliable. 4. 3 Endorser Credibility and Advertisement Effectiveness IntroductionIn this study, in order to test H1 Credibility of endorsers significantly affects advertisement effectiveness, linear regression analysis is adopted in exam the relationship of dependent variable (Y), advertising effectiveness, to relate the independent variables(X), which is the endorsers credibility, for the prediction. The measures of endorsers credibility consisted of 5 attributes, which are trustworthiness, expertise, believability, attractiveness and honesty. Meanwhile, advertising effectiveness contained 3 attributes, including brand attitude, attitude towards the advertisement and purchase intention.The attributes of credibility and advertising effectiveness had combined as the mean remove in the analy sis. In the following table, Credibility1 of celebrity endorser Kandy in part A Credibility2 represents the computed results of expert endorser Albert in part A Credibility3 represents the computed results of celebrity endorser Gaile in part B Credibility4 represents the computed results of expert endorser Robert in part B. EndorserAdeffectiveness represents combined mean lay down of all endorsers advertising effectiveness. Coefficient of Determination R squareMujis (2004) had provided a guide to assess how well a developed model fit the data. The table would give a clearer interpretation of Mujis suggestion. 0. 5 Strong Fit Result of Endorser Credibility and Advertisement Effectiveness Model tellmary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. misunderstanding of the Estimate 1 . 756a . 572 . 569 . 24445 a. Predictors (Constant), Credibility1, Credibility2 Credibility3, Credibility4 To test the correlation of the endorser credibility and their advertising effectiveness, the coeffic ient of determination r2 is used.It is a statistical term that tells us how well one variable is at predicting another. Since the study is a small scale research, using adjusted R square would give a more accurate result. (Mujis ,2004). The dependent variable EndorserAdeffectiveness is the combined mean score of all endorsers advertising effectiveness, and the independent variable Credibility 1 to Credibility 4 is the mean score of celebrity and expert endorsers in part A and part B. In the table, the R square is 0. 572 and the adjusted R square is 0. 569, with the standard error of 0. 24445.As the adjusted R square is 0. 569, it indicated that the credibility of endorser explains 56. 9% of advertising effectiveness. According to the Mujis, when adjusted R square is 0. 5, it shows a strong fit of the model. Therefore, the correlation between endorsers credibility and advertising effectiveness is strong. ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 67. 671 1 33. 8 36 404. 646 . 000a Residual 16. 724 201 . 060 Total 84. 395 202 b. a. Predictors (Constant), Credibility1, Credibility2 Credibility3, Credibility4 b.Dependent Variable EndorserAdeffectiveness In the F test, a 95% of confidence level is adopted, the p-value is . 000, which is 3. However, celebrity perceived as more attractive than expert endorsers. Likability In testing the attribute likability with the statement The endorsers image is positive, the celebrity endorser has 3. 1 points and the expert endorser has 3. 52 points. The result shows that the respondents perceived both celebrity and expert endorser as likable, since their mean are 3. However, expert endorser Albert had a slightly higher point than celebrity, while the celebrity is perceived as more attractive as shown above. Trustworthiness Attributes Trustworthiness In testing the attribute trustworthiness with the statement The endorser is trustworthy, the celebrity endorser has 3. 25 points and the expert endorser h as 3. 42 points. Both endorsers perceived as trustworthy, and have a very close result.The expert endorser Albert certain a slightly higher point than Kandy only. Honesty In testing the attribute Honesty with the statement The endorser is honest, the celebrity endorser has 3. 38 points and the expert endorser has 3. 54 points. Respondents grade both endorser scores that higher than the midpoint, which show that both endorsers are perceived as honest and believable. However, Albert still scores slightly higher point than Kandy in this attribute. Expertise Attribute Professional In testing the attribute expertise with the statement The endorser is professional, the celebrity endorser Kandy has 2. 0 points and the expert endorser Albert has 3. 80points. Differ from other variables in part A, the result shows significant difference between two endorsers, the celebrity endorser Kandy real a low score, which is lower than the neutral 3 point. The respondents disagree that Kandy is prof essional and has expertise towards the product. In contrast, the expert endorser Albert Li received a positive score, the respondents perceived Albert as professional and expert. Summary of Part A Part A Endorser Credibility N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Kandy 203 3. 26 . 892 . 063Albert 203 3. 3113 . 67810 . 04759 Comparing the credibility attributes between celebrity and expert endorser in part A, which is for the attractive-related aqua cream skin care product from the brand Super, the celebrity endorser Kandy only has the advantage in the Attractiveness compared to the expert endorser Albert. On the contrary, the expert endorser has a higher grade in trustworthiness, expertise, believability and likability attributes compared to Kandy. Especially in the area of expertise, while Albert had 3. 54 points while the celebrity only had 2. 30 points.The result shows that the expert endorser Albert Li is having advantages in more attributes of credibility than Kandy. To conclud e all the credibility attributes, Albert received a slightly higher mean score (3. 1113) than Kandy (3. 26), as shown in table. Results in Part B Part B affinity of Celebrity and Expert Endorsers Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Pair 1 CThe endorser is attractive 3. 44 203 . 790 . 055 EThe endorser is attractive 2. 10 203 . 605 . 042 Pair 2 CThe endorsers image is positive 2. 72 203 . 840 . 059 EThe endorsers image is positive 3. 0 203 . 887 . 062 Pair 3 CThe endorser is trustworthy 2. 80 203 . 890 . 062 EThe endorser is trustworthy 3. 54 203 . 749 . 053 Pair 4 CThe endorser is honest 2. 77 203 . 868 . 061 EThe endorser is honest 3. 57 203 . 757 . 053 Pair 5 CThe endorser is professional 2. 67 203 . 840 . 059 EThe endorser is professional 3. 59 203 . 852 . 060 Attractiveness Attributes Attractiveness As shown in table 3, for the statement The endorser is attractive this is to test the attractiveness in the credibility scale, from the 5 point Likert scale, the celebrity has 3. 4 points, when the expert endorser only has 2. 10 points. The result shows that the celebrity Gaile in part B is perceived as attractive, with the score higher than the midpoint. However, the expert endorser Robert received a respectively low score than Gaile. The respondents didnt find the expert endorser attractive in this part. Likability In testing the attribute likability with the statement The endorsers image is positive, the celebrity endorser has 2. 72 points and the expert endorser has 3. 50 points. Gaile has the score lower than the midpoint, while Robert is perceived as likable in this part.Trustworthiness Attributes Trustworthiness In testing the attribute trustworthiness with the statement The endorser is trustworthy, the celebrity endorser Gaile has 2. 80 points and the expert endorser Robert has 3. 54 points. The result shows that the respondents disagree that Gaile is trustworthy in this advertisement, while they found the expert endorser Robert more trustwor thy than Gaile. Honesty In testing the attribute Honesty with the statement The endorser is honest, the celebrity endorser has 2. 77 points and the expert endorser has 3. 57 points.The result shows that respondents find that Robert is more honest in the advertisement than Gaile, since they graded Gaile a score lower than midpoint (2. 77). Expertise Attribute Professional In testing the attribute expertise with the statement The endorser is professional, the celebrity endorser has 2. 67 points and the expert endorser has 3. 59 points. The respondents graded a low score for Gaile in this attributes, which shows that they did not perceive Gaile as professional and expert in this advertisement. On the other hand, Robert, the expert endorser is perceived as professional and expert.Summary of Part B Part B Credibility N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Celebrity Endorser 203 2. 8828 . 68553 . 04811 Expert Endorser 203 3. 2197 . 62711 . 04401 Comparing the credibility attributes betwee n celebrity and expert endorser in part B, which is for the hand cream and body emulsion from the brand Super, the celebrity endorser Gaile only has the advantage in the Attractiveness attribute compared to the expert endorser Robert, while Robert has the utmost score in this attribute, compared to other attributes.On the contrary, the expert endorser has a higher grade in trustworthiness, expertise, honesty and likability attributes compared to Gaile. In addition to this, Gaile has been graded relatively low points in these four attributes all of these attributes are lower than the midpoint score. The lowest score is found at the expertise attribute, while Gaile only received 2. 67 point. To Combined the credibility attribute in part B, which is the comparison towards the health-related product hand cream and body emulsion, the celebrity endorser Gaile has an overall mean of 2. 828 points, compared to the 3. 2197 points of the expert endorser Robert, as shown in Table 4. The expe rt endorser Robert is perceived more credible than the celebrity endorser Gaile in this advertisement, in addition to this, the average score of Gaile is lower than the midpoint(3). The result shows that respondents disagree that Gaile is a credible endorser. Comparison between Celebrity Endorsers Mean Score of Celebrity Endorsers Credibility Attributes Kandy Gaile Attractive 3. 87 3. 44 Likability 3. 51 2. 72 Attractiveness Average 3. 69 3. 08Honesty 3. 38 2. 77 Trustworthy 3. 25 2. 80 Trustworthiness Average 3. 315 2. 785 Expertise 2. 30 2. 67 Average Score 3. 26 2. 8828 In the table, it has shown the mean score of celebrity endorsers credibility attributes, combining part A and part B, which is Kandy and Gaile respectively. The average attribute score of each endorser is highlighted in the table. It can be seen that both of the celebrity received highest point in the Attractiveness attribute (3. 69 and 3. 08), on the other hand, thy both received lowest point in the Expertise at tribute (2. 0 and 2. 67) among the other attributes. For the Trustworthiness attribute, Kandy received 3. 315 points while Gaile only had 2. 785, which was lower than midpoint 3. The result shows that the respondents perceived celebrity endorsers as attractive in the advertisements, making it the most significant attributes among the credibility attributes. However, respondents disagree celebrity is professional and expert in the advertisement, as the score of the expertise attribute of the celebrity is both lower than the midpoint of the likert scale.The result also shows that Kandy has a higher credibility average score than Gaile, while Kandy has an average score (3. 26) above the midpoint. Kandy were all graded above the midpoint in the attributes of Attractiveness (3. 87), Likability(3. 51), credibleness(3. 38) and Trustworthiness(3. 25), however, Gaile was all graded below the midpoint in the attributes of Likability(2. 72), Expertise (2. 67) Believability(2. 77) and Trustwor thiness(2. 80) average score is below the midpoint level.Besides the expertise attribute, Kandy received higher points than Gaile among the other attribute. It indicated that the respondents perceived Kandy as a celebrity endorser who is more credible than Gaile. Comparison between Expert Endorsers Mean Score of Expert Endorsers Robert1 Robert2 Attractive 3. 34 2. 10 Likability 3. 52 3. 50 Attractiveness Average 3. 43 2. 8 Trustworthy 3. 42 3. 54 Honesty 3. 54 3. 57 Trustworthiness Average 3. 48 3. 555 Expertise 3. 80 3. 59 Average Score 3. 3113 3. 2197As shown in the table, it indicated the mean score of expert endorsers credibility attributes, comb part A and part B, which is Albert Li and Robert Kwon respectively. The highest and lowest score of each endorser is highlighted in the table. It can be seen that both of the expert endorser received highest point in the Expertise attribute (3. 80 and 3. 59), on the other hand, thy both received lowest point in the Attractiveness (3. 4 3 and 2. 8) among the other attributes. Robert had a slightly higher point(3. 555) than Albert (3. 48) in the Trustworthiness attribute.The result shows that the respondents perceived celebrity endorsers as attractive in the advertisements, making it the most significant attributes among the credibility attributes. However, respondents only found Albert is attractive. For Robert in the part B advertisement, the score of the attractiveness attribute was lower than the midpoint of the likert scale. There is a significant contrast between two expert endorsers toward this attribute. Despite of the contrast of the attractiveness attribute, the expert endorsers were graded above the agreement level and received a similar result in other credibility attributes.The average score of two expert endorsers is very close (3. 31113 and 3. 2197). The result shows that respondents perceived expert endorsers in these two advertisements as credible and most significantly, professional. Summary of Cel ebrity and Expert endorser Credibility Attributes Between Celebrity and Expert Endorsers Mean Score Celebrity A 3. 26 Expert A 3. 3113 Mean Score Celebrity B 2. 8828 Expert B 3. 2197 Average Score 3. 0714 3. 2655 Since the expert endorsers were grade a higher score in terms of credibility in both part A and part B.We can conclude that H2 Celebrity endorser has a better performance in the general measure of Endorser Credibility is rejected. Endorser Credibility to Particular Advertising Effectiveness Attributes As the H1credibility of endorsers significantly affects advertisement effectiveness has been accepted, in the following section, the relationship of endorsers credibility and particular advertising effectiveness attributes brand attitude attitude towards the advertisement and purchase intention would be tested in order to gain a deeper understanding to the study.Celebrity endorsers to Advertising Effectiveness The celebrity endorsers credibility would be group as CelebExperti se, which is the mean score of endorsers expertise CelebTrustworthy, which is the mean score of endorsers trustworthiness and CelebAttractive is the mean score of endorsers at

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

The Public Health Campaigns Health And Social Care Essay

Even though the relationship between cervical malignant neoplastic affection and familiar activity has proved by surveies to be near and the function of the HPV virus in the learning of cervical malignant neoplastic disease is well-known, the reviewed articles showed that there discombobulate nt been emphasized plenty by the unexclusive wellness runs ( Waller, McCaffery and Wardle 2004 ) . Specifically in the NHS, the information provided is limited. Some surveies present that the medical cusps superiorlight the taking behavioural affect factors such as the early age of firstly intercourse, the high figure of cozy spouses or the deficiency of usage of rubbers, nevertheless, the relationship between a familiar transmitted virus and cervical malignant neoplastic disease is nt presented clearly ( Waller, McCaffery and Wardle 2004 ) .Sexual activity of adolescents could be characterized as either a milepost of their development or a field of unsafe behaviour. During pubescenc e, sexual activity becomes active as adolescents experiment, seeking for sexual individuality . Merely one article ( 13 ) refering Greece high spot that to day of the month Greece competes with the highest abortion incidence rates worldwide and sexually transmitted diseases are the most common public wellness pedigree among striplings. The deficiency of information on how to protect themselves for unintended gestation of STIs could be ruinous ( Iliadou and Palaska 2008 ) . Harmonizing to this survey, sexual pedagogy is limited and unsatisfactory among striplings in Greece because conservative positions usurp that sexual wellness training shows new patterns to the immature people which otherwise they would nt follow. Specifically the chief beginnings of information on contraceptive method are friends ( 66 % ) , household ( 60 % ) and books or magazines ( 59 % ) whereas the wellness professional apply save the 3.3 % of the replies ( Iliadou and Palaska 2008 ) . Contrary to t he immature Greek population, research workers examined striplings of other states such as Denmark and they concluded that they have equal perception on how to protect themselves while adult distaffs and work forces are discovered every bit responsible for the transmittal of STIs ( Mortensen 2010 ) .In add-on, most surprising is that alike the UK provides limited cognition on the STIs and HPV infection in both work forces and adult females. Five of the surveies ( 20 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 ) provided studies which proved that 67 % of the people responded that many sexual spouses is a major cause of cervical malignant neoplastic disease whereas merely 31 % replied viruses or infection . Merely 1 % of the respondents answered that HPV virus is a causal factor of cervical malignant neoplastic disease ( Waller, McCaffery and Wardle 2004 ) . The same surveies demonstrated that the form of cognition seems to divert across different age groups. For illustration, adult females o f 55-64 old ages old are most likely to cognize game factors such as the sexual activity and holding many sexual spouses. On the other manus, younger adult females of 16-24 old ages old and people holding inadequate affirmation showed the lowest consciousness of the hazard factors ( Waller, McCaffery and Wardle 2004 ) ( Wardle, et Al. 2001 ) . This study raises the inquiry on the cognition British adult females have, sing the sexual behaviour. Furthermore, the overall cognition on sexually transmitted infections ( STI ) is surprisingly low among pupils. British female pupils were familiar with the smear attempt as a preventative cervical malignant neoplastic disease testing step and they replied that they had neer considered themselves to be examined but they expressed an involvement in the HPV vaccine. On the other manus, work forces were nt certain what smear trial is ( Martin, et Al. 2011 ) . Hence, what is revealed is that the recent high cervical malignant neoplastic diseas e incidence rates are the result of a wellness instruction system where the cognition of the sexual behaviour is limited and it is nt concentrated on the self-management and the theatre of operations of the organic structure.All these findings, in add-on to the 14 % increased incidence rates in the last four old ages ( Cancer Research UK, 2012 ) demonstrate that the current wellness instruction peculiarly in school- ground undertakings in the UK is hapless and one-sided. It focuses largely on the unintended gestation and contributes to the position that sexual wellness is merely adult female s duty. These surveies ( 30 , 32 , 33 ) show that school based programmes in the UK fail to understand that betterment of misbehaviour is required to set up self-discipline. Alternatively, these school-based programmes should intent to increase the cognition of the adolescences to supervise themselves, produce the consciousness of the hazard factors and make the sense of personal duty in take parting on a regular basis in the showing trials. Hence, wellness instruction would finally make adept disciplined organic structures. This manner, the organic structure becomes cardinal. The construct of bio-power is placed to exert non merely the organic structure but besides the psyche. For that ground, there was ever been a argument on whether the UK should present unfastened treatments about sex in a school-based programme and educate adolescents on fitting sexual behaviour and their engagement to testing trials in order to cut down the sexually familial infections ( Martin, et Al. 2011 ) . Overall, it is dismaying that most people in Britain consider household medical history as most noteworthy factor for cervical malignant neoplastic disease than the infection by STIs ( Waller, McCaffery and Wardle 2004 ) .However, acceptance and instruction execution of wellness instruction programmes outside school, has been a topic of research. Contrary to what Nettleton claims ther e is besides the belief provided chiefly by Annemarie bulwark that wellness instruction of public wellness is nt adequate to do people move rationally and give up unhealthy life styles. Public wellness runs are accused for organism really general and that they address the full population without taking into consideration the differences among people s wellness position and the stipulations for disease. Every educational run focuses on the population as a entire and as all being equal and they do nt acknowledge that when the educational programmes address the whole population, there is a portion of it, that ca nt hold entree to the healthy life style they suggest and people do nt see themselves reflecting in this state of affairs ( jetty 2008 ) . Furthermore, gender is a sensitive field that most adult females feel uncomfortable and diffident to discourse about publically. Any public statement that emphasizes on the nexus between cervical malignant neoplastic disease, sexual activit y and smear trial, sounds to be about the adult female s ain gender ( Braun and Gavey 1999 ) .This is the ground why the wellness instruction even in public wellness runs should be targeted to specific age groups. School is a shiny manner. Harmonizing to the undermentioned surveies ( 20 , 30 , 31 ) school is the lone establishment in our society where many immature people attend before their first intercourse. Given proper and sufficient wellness instruction, it is cardinal that the self-management of the adolescences is improved and the informed pick is activated. Health instruction finally creates to the adult females the sense of power and subject on their ain organic structure. Self-discipline is considered as a moral behaviour which is motivated by intrinsic factors. The school-based programmes aim to better these factors and make a sense of cognizing ego and lead to active agents of the society where people control themselves unconsciously that is, school- based progr ammes create what Foucault has defined as docile organic structures. Harmonizing to surveies conducted in the 90s and 2000, there is no grounds that sexual instruction increases the sexual activity. Alternatively, the sexual instruction specifically in school-based programmes delays the first intercourse, increases the usage of prophylactic methods and reduces the figure of sexual spouses ( Kirby, et Al. 1994 ) ( Dolan Mullen, et Al. 1995 ) ( Iliadou and Palaska 2008 ) . Most significantly, through the wellness instruction course of study there were important positive consequences sing the return of unhealthy wonts ( Glanz, Rimer and Viswanath 2008 ) ( Dolan Mullen, et Al. 1995 ) such as smoke, and a important addition in the inoculation rates. In add-on, in the 1980s research surveies was found out that among simple and secondary school kids, wellness instruction really improved kids s wellness attitude and behaviour ( Dolan Mullen, et Al. 1995 ) . Therefore, it is a great chance to turn to wellness instruction programmes particularly sing the decrease of hazardous sexual behaviour ( Kirby, et Al. 1994 ) and the regular engagement in diagnostic trials because most HPV instances are reported in immature ages of 20-24 old ages old.There are many ways to believe that public policy can forbid hazardous activities and advance healthy manner of life. Recreation countries and rigorous nutrient command law are some public intercessions Mol suggests through which, people can switch into rational mundane wonts ( Mol 2008 ) . Information runs on the HPV inoculation is another 1. Some articles consider Denmark as a important illustration that makes a important attempt since the debut of the HPV vaccinum in 2006, to educate the female population with HPV information runs. These runs are concentrated on the safety, the cost, the efficiency and possible side effects of the vaccinums ( Mortensen 2010 ) . Besides, in the same model, the two vaccinum makers organized a media -based run meaning to inform the female population on the benefits of the inoculation ( Mortensen 2010 ) . The engagement of adult females in these events can increase their cognition on the disease and the possible hazard factors and they can do informed picks on showing or inoculation.Not surprisingly, in most of the developed states the cervical malignant neoplastic disease testing system is advanced, nevertheless as surveies show, adult females still develop cervical malignant neoplastic disease ( Bosh and Harper 2006 ) . So, primary coil bar has a double function in the first topographic point, the end of the wellness instruction is to supply information through a non-threatening, blue and accessible manner and raise the consciousness of persons about organic structure care and lifestyle alteration to forestall disease through assorted programmes. done nonsubjective and progressive information, people can go rational histrions for them and they can acknowledge easy the hazar d factors and the dangers of specific activities. For illustration, research analyzing the attitude of adult females and parents for the HPV vaccinum demonstrated that given the right information on the safety and efficaciousness of the vaccinum, they promote its usage ( Raffle, 2007 ) ( Bunn 2008 ) . Hence, a wide and complete educational programme is of the essence(p) to trip an informed pick. Most of the articles pointed out that it is cardinal that adult females have the ability to do their ain wellness picks. Additionally, another end of the wellness instruction is to stress the personal duty for wellness and promote the engagement of adult females on wellness services ( Scambler 2005 ) . Women should experience that go toing the cervical malignant neoplastic disease testing scrutinies is a personal determination. In Western societies, people are an ideal illustration of docile organic structures as they are advance to take attention of their organic structure through prevent ative interventions and they are induced to command their wellness. Namely, protection of their organic structures is a portion of their duty as being members of the society ( Braun and Gavey 1999 ) ( Petersen and Lupton 2000 ) . As Mol agrees, it is better to promote people to take part in such intercessions instead than compel them ( Mol 2008 ) . No power system has of all time survived with the fright and coercion as the lone arms.