Monday, September 30, 2019

Good and Bad public speakers Essay

Martin Luther King achieved equality between black and white people. He was born in 1929 and died in 1968. I think that Martin Luther King is a good speaker because he is confident. This makes people more interested in what he is saying since they believe in him. The fact that Martin Luther King has compassion for what he is saying makes his speeches more effective. With this he achieved desegregation and equality. Martin Luther King also uses appropriate body language, which makes the audience more engaged in what he is trying to say. Martin also controlled his pitch by varying it so that the audience didn’t get bored. He used a mixture of complicated and simple vocabulary so that everyone would be able to understand him. Another reason why Martin Luther King was a good speaker was that he involved the audience by asking them rhetorical questions. This made the audience listen and think about what he was saying. It also made the audience agree and support him because they knew it was the right thing to do. Martin Luther King also used to repeat points to emphasize them. He also used to keep his speeches quite short and simple to keep the audiences attention. Overall due to Martin Luther King being a good and effective speaker he convinced people about black and white people being equal and became part of history. George Bush was born in 1946 and was the 43rd USA President. When speaking publically Bush was known for being a bad public speaker. He always used to make up words that would fill in spaces. He also used to slur a lot as well as mumbling. George Bush also wasn’t motivating and therefore his speeches weren’t effective. He also didn’t use much body language, which didn’t keep his audiences attention. From today’s lesson, which was when we discussed our chosen speakers was useful. I had to discuss my speakers with Alex who had chosen the same people as me. This meant that we could compare our work. Alex more or less had similar or the same facts as I had. She also included about MLK that he increased his volume to further explain an important point. He repeated phrases such as ‘I had a dream’, to male people remember it more. She also included that he speaks in a slow pace with pauses so people can understand him more. Alex also included some information about George Bush. She further added on that he didn’t connect with the audience since he was always looking down at the paper. She also added that he wasn’t convincing/enthusiastic and that his speeches dint flow like Martin Luther Kings.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Currency Movement

Executive summary The  Indian rupee  (? ) is the official  currency  of the  Republic of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the  Reserve Bank of India. The modern rupee is subdivided into 100 paisa  (singular  paisa), although this division is now theoretical; as of 30 June 2011, coin denominations of less than 50 paise ceased to be  legal tender. Banknotes are available in nominal values of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 rupees.Rupee coins are available in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 100 and 1000; of these, the  [pic]  100 and  [pic]  1000 coins are for commemorative purposes only; the only other rupee coin has a nominal value of 50 paisa, since lower denominations have been officially withdrawn. The  Indian rupee symbol  [pic]  (officially adopted in 2010) is derived from the  Devanagari  consonant â€Å"? † (Ra) with an added horizontal bar. The symbol can also be derived from the Latin consonant â€Å"R† by r emoving the vertical line, and adding two horizontal bars (like the symbols for the  Japanese yen  and the  euro).The first series of coins with the rupee symbol was launched on 8 July 2011. The Mahatma Gandhi series of banknotes are issued by the Reserve Bank of India as legal tender. The series is so named because the obverse of each note features a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi. Since its introduction in 1996, this series has replaced all issued banknotes. The RBI introduced the series in 1996 with [pic]10 and [pic]500 banknotes. At present, the RBI issues banknotes in denominations from [pic]5 to [pic]1,000. The printing of [pic]5 notes (which had stopped earlier) resumed in 2009.As of January 2012, the new Indian rupee sign has been incorporated into banknotes in denominations of [pic]10, [pic]100, [pic]500 and [pic]1,000. INTRODUCTION The Indian Economy is the eleventh largest economy in the world with a nominal GDP of US$1,235,975 million (IMF list). The Indian market has been booming in leaps & bounds. By 2008, India had established itself as the world's  second-fastest growing major economy after China, with a growth rate of 9. 4%. However, the year 2009 saw a significant slowdown in India's GDP growth rate to 6. 8%.The Rupee hit a record low during early 2009 on account of the global recession. However, due to a strong domestic market, India managed to bounce back sooner than the western countries. Since September 2009 there has been a constant appreciation in Rupee versus most Tier 1 currencies. The exchange rate as on 30thOctober, 2010 is  [pic]44. 345 to the USD. A rising rupee prompted Government of India to buy 200 tonnes of Gold for $6. 7 billion from IMF in 2009 as a total role reversal from 1991. Indian forex reserves stands at  $294. 01 billion (Oct, 2010). What is Currency?A generally accepted form of money, including coins and paper notes, which is issued by a government and circulated within an economy. Used as a medium of exchan ge for goods and services, currency is the basis for trade. Any form of money that is in public circulation. Currency includes both hard money (coins) and soft money (paper money). Typically currency refers to money that is legally designated as such by the governing body, but in some cultures currency can refer to any object that has aperceived value and can be exchanged for other objects. What is currency fluctuation?Currency fluctuations are simply the ongoing changes between the relative values of the currency issued by one country when compared to a different currency. The process of currency fluctuation is something that occurs every day and impacts the relative rate of exchange between various currencies on a continual basis. HISTORY BRITISH INDIAN ONE RUPEE NOTE: In 1861, the government of India introduced its first paper money: 10-rupee notes in 1864, 5-rupee notes in 1872, 10,000-rupee notes in 1899, 100-rupee notes in 1900, 50-rupee notes in 1905, 500-rupee notes in 1907 and 1000-rupee notes in 1909. In 1917, 1- and 21? -rupee notes were introduced. The Reserve Bank of India began banknote production in 1938, issuing 2-, 5-, 10-, 50-, 100-, 1,000- and 10,000-rupee notes while the government continued issuing 1-rupee notes. INDEPENDENT ISSUES SINCE 1949 After independence, new designs were introduced to replace the portrait of the king. The government continued issuing the 1-rupee note, while the Reserve Bank issued other denominations (including the 5,000- and 10,000-rupee notes introduced in 1949). During the 1970s, 20- and 50-rupee notes were introduced; denominations higher than 100 rupees were demonetized in 1978.In 1987 the 500-rupee note was introduced, followed by the 1,000-rupee note in 2000. One- and two-rupee notes were discontinued in 1995. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY To get idea about fluctuations of Indian currency in last 10 years To gain knowledge about the factors affecting currency fluctuations To analyze effect of currency fluctuations on e conomy Impact of currency fluctuation on consumption, investment, exports and imports Factors Affecting Currency Fluctuation [pic] ECONOMIC POSITION: 1. Internal Factors 2. External Factors Internal Factors includes: Industrial Deficit of the country. †¢ Fiscal Deficit of the country. †¢ GDP and GNP of the country. †¢ Foreign Exchange Reserves. †¢ Inflation Rate of the Country. †¢ Agricultural growth and production. †¢ Different types of policies like EXIM Policy, Credit Policy of the country as well reforms undertaken in the yearly Budget. †¢ Infrastructure of the Country External Factors includes: †¢ Export trade and Import trade with the foreign country. †¢ Loan sanction by World Bank and IMF †¢ Relationship with the foreign country. †¢ Internationally OIL Price and Gold Price.FOREIGN DEBT: Foreign debt, also known as external debt, is a term used to classify the amount of money a country owes to other countries or external b anking organizations such as the World Bank. There are many reasons a country may choose to go into foreign debt, including infrastructure development or economic stimulation. As of 2009, the estimated foreign debt for all world countries combined hovered at about $56. 9 trillion US Dollars (USD). One term that comes up often when considering foreign debt is sustainability.For external debt to be sustainable, a country must have a high enough gross domestic product (GDP) in order to pay down and eventually pay off the debt while continuing its own economic function. Therefore, a country with a high GDP or large employed population may be able to sustain much more debt than a small or poor country. POLITICAL FACTOR: In India election held every five years mean thereby one party has rule for the five years. But from the 1996 India was facing political instability and this type of political instability has created hefty problem in the different market especially in Forex market, which is highly volatile.In fact in the year 1999 due to political uncertainty in the BJP Government the rupee has depreciated by 30 paise in the month of April. So we can say that political can become important factor to determine foreign exchange in India. INFLATION RATE: It is widely held that exchange rates move in the direction required to compensate for relative inflation rates. For instance, if a currency is already overvalued, i. e. stronger than what is warranted by relative inflation rates, depreciation sufficient enough to correct that position can be expected and vice versa.It is necessary to note that an exchange rate is a relative price and hence the market weighs all the relative factors in relative terms (in relation to the counterpart countries). The underlying reasoning behind this conviction is that a relatively high rate of inflation reduces a country’s competitiveness and weakens its ability to sell in international markets. This situation, in turn, will weaken the domestic currency by reducing the demand or expected demand for it and increasing the demand or expected demand for the oreign currency (increase in the supply of domestic currency and decrease in the supply of foreign currency). INTEREST RATE: An important factor for movement in exchange rates in recent years is interest rates, i. e. interest differential between major currencies. In this respect the growing integration of financial markets of major countries, the revolution in telecommunication facilities, the growth of specialised asset managing agencies, the deregulation of financial markets by major countries, he emergence of foreign trading as profit centres per se and the tremendous scope for bandwagon and squaring effects on the rates, etc. have accelerated the potential for exchange rate volatility. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS: As mentioned earlier, a net inflow of foreign currency tends to strengthen the home currency vis-a-vis other currencies. This is because the supply of the foreign currency will be in excess of demand. A good way of ascertaining this would be to check the balance of payments. If the balance of payments is positive and foreign exchange reserves are increasing, the home currency will become strong.LAST 10 YEARS GRAPH |Year |Rupees | |2000 |45 | |2001 |47. 23 | |2002 |48. 62 | |2003 |46. | |2004 |45. 28 | |2005 |44. 01 | |2006 |45. 17 | |2007 |41. 2 | |2008 |43. 1 | |2009 |48. 32 | |2010 |45. 61 | |2011 |46. 61 | Last 10 Years Fluctuation With U. S. $ Rs/$ exchange rate for last 10 years [pic] Major Fluctuations The major reason which draws attention towards this rupee appreciation has been a flood of foreign-exchange inflows, especially US dollars.The surge of capital inflows into India has taken variety of forms ranging from foreign direct investment (FDI) to remittances sent back home by Indian expatriates. The main impact of these flows is as follows: 1. FDI: India’s starring economic growth has created a larg e domestic market that offers promising opportunities for foreign companies. Moreover many companies rising competitiveness in many sectors has made it an attractive export base. 2. ECB (EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL BORROWINGS): Indian companies have borrowed enormous amounts of money overseas to finance investments and acquisitions at home and abroad.This borrowed money has returned to India, boosting capital inflows. In 2007-08 (april-september) external assistance (net) was placed at US $ 729 million as against US $ 386 million for the corresponding period in 2006-07 indicating a growth of 88. 9%. 3. FOREIGN PORTFOLIO INFLOWS (FII’S): India’s booming stock market embodies the confidence of the investors in the country’s corporate sector. Foreign portfolio inflows have played a key role in fuming this boom. Looking at the period of 2003-04 and 2006-07, the net annual inflow of funds by foreign institutional investors averaged US $ 8. bn. Trends during first five months of 2007 indicate that this flood is continuing with net FII inflows amounting to US $4. 6 bn. Another major source of portfolio capital inflows has been overseas equity issues of Indian companies via global depository receipts (GDR’s) & American depository receipts (ADR’s). Moreover FII’s registered in India has doubled to 1050 between March 2001 –march 2007 and now around 3,336 FII subaccounts also exist. . FII equity flow has increased from $9. 8 billion in 2004, $ 11 billion in 2005 to over 16 billion in 2007. these inflows have risen to 43% in 2007.However in mid-October RBI banned foreign investment via off shore derivatives called participatory notes (PN). These derivatives were used by foreign investors not registered in India (say hedge funds) to indirectly invest through registered investors. Between Mar 2004 – Aug 2007 the number of FII sub accounts that issued PNs rose from 14 to 34. Many believed that motive behind such RBI measure was to improve transparency of capital inflows and that restricting inflows via PN would have little or no impact on overall inflows coming into the country. 4.INVESTMENT AND REMITTANCES: Another major source of capital inflows has been non-resident Indians (NRI’s) investing large amounts in special bank accounts. While NRI’s emotional connection to the country of origin is part of explanation to this, the attractive interest rate offered on such deposits also provide a powerful incentive. In 2006-07 NRI deposits amounted to US$ 3. 8 bn. another large source of foreign exchange inflows has been remittances from huge number of Indians working overseas temporarily. Such remittances amounted to a colossal of US $ 19. bn in April-December 2006, a 15% year on year increase. CHANGING SCENARIO OF 2008 The current year 2008 has started with sudden tide of depreciation of rupee. The rupee has lost its glory of invincibility that surrounded it over past one year. Between January an d second week of February rupee depreciated against greenback by atleast 3%. The demand and supply theory The current year 2008 has started with sudden tide of depreciation of rupee. The rupee has lost its glory of invincibility that surrounded it over past one year. Between January and second week of February rupee depreciated gainst greenback by atleast 3%. The recent spell of depreciation of rupee is the outcome of surging demand for greenback from oil importers. Oil prices have globally hit anew record of $135 per barrel on 22may 2008. Since oil is prices in dollar in global market and most of our crude oil requirements being met from imports from overseas, rising prices of crude oil meant that domestic oil companies will need more dollars to fund their purchases. This triggers rupee sales and dollar purchases thus leading to weakening of rupee. ADVANTAGES OF RUPEE APPRECIATION DAMPENING OF INFLATION: Normally, currencies appreciate when the economies are doing well and the rise in their value is a cause for celebration especially for consumers. A higher value of rupee will result in cheaper imports which, in turn has a dampening  effect on inflation. Thus, rupee appreciation helps control inflation. †¢   FOREIGN DEBT SERVICING: Appreciation of the rupee helps in easing the pressure, related to foreign debt servicing (interest payments on debt raised in foreign currency), on India and Indian companies.With Indian companies taking advantage of the United States soft interest rate regime and raising foreign currency loans, known as external commercial borrowings (ECBs), this is a welcome phenomenon from the point of view of their interest commitments on the loans raised. This will help them avoid taking a bigger hit on their bottom-line, which is beneficial for its shareholders. Indian companies which have Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCBs) like Reliance Communications, Bharat Forge, Sun Pharma and Ranbaxy  benefit from the appreciation of rupee.   OUTBOUND TOURISTS/STUDENT BONANZA: The appreciating rupee is a big positive for tourists traveling or wanting to travel abroad. Considering that the rupee has appreciated by over 10% against the US dollar since mid-2002, traveling to the US is now cheaper by a similar quantum in rupee terms. The same applies to students who are still in the process of finalizing their study plans abroad. For example, a student's enrollment for a $1,000 course abroad would now cost only  [pic]44,000 instead of the earlier  [pic]49,000! †¢   GOVERNMENT RESERVES:Considering that the government has been selling its stake aggressively in major public sector units in the recent past, and with a substantial chunk of this being subscribed by FIIs, the latter will have to invest more dollars to pick up a stake in the company being divested, thus aiding the governments build up of reserves. DISADVANTAGES OF RUPEE APPRECIATION †¢Ã‚   EXPORTERS' disadvantage:  The exporters are at a disadvantage owing to the currency appreciation as this renders their produce expensive in the international markets as compared to other competing nations whose currencies haven't appreciated on a similar scale.Small exporters are hit badly by rupee appreciation as they have limited access to hedging products. This tends to take away a part of the advantage from Indian companies, which they enjoy due to their cost competitiveness. However, it must be noted that despite the sharp currency appreciation in recent times, Indian exports have continued to grow. †¢ DOLLAR DENOMINATED EARNINGS HURT: the strengthening rupee has an adverse impact on various companies/sectors, which derive a substantial portion of their revenues from the us markets (or in dollar denominations).Software and BPO are typical examples of the sectors adversely impacted by the appreciation of rupee. RUPEE APPRECIATION FROM THE EXPORTER’S POINT OF VEIW Most developing countries have economies based lar gely on exports that are competitive in global markets because of low prices. When those countries' currency gains value, they are no longer able to offer exports to the global market at the same low prices that they planned to. This may cause importers to look elsewhere to country's with lower valued currency and thus prices or to order less than they would have otherwise.Thus, the share of exports in economy will be affected, if the currency appreciates. The main effect on the exporters is that an appreciated currency  makes the exporter’s products more expensive in overseas markets and it thus erodes their international competitiveness. In the Indian scenario today, the  IT industry is growing by 31% YOY and major operations (around 80-85%) are outsourced from the US-based companies. Hotels like ITC, Taj etc. have about 50% of their revenues in terms of dollars. Thus, these industries will stand to lose when rupee appreciates.Similiarly, silk industry had to bear the b runt as it was  71% sensitive to the  hardening of the currency. Cotton and jute were less sensitive to the rising rupee at  23% and 18% respectively. The  IT sector companies were  upto  90% sensitive to  rupee appreciation. RUPEE APPRECIATION FROM THE IMPORTER’S POINT OF VEIW The reverse phenomenon happens when you look at rupee appreciation from the importer’s point of view. Oil companies are highly benefitted, more than  80% crude oil is imported from the gulf and  other counties. Acc to an Indian Oil Corporation manager, for every Rs1 appreciation, crude oil price dips by  2%.Another major beneficiary of rupee appreciation are the  Indian companies who have gone for recent acquisitions using foreign debt-leverage. Indian companies who have International borrowings in their account are also benefitted. An appreciating rupee is beneficial for the country’s external debts as well. Consumer electronic goods, imported apparels etc become av ailable at cheaper prices as a result of a higher valued rupee. Industries which import raw materials get these at a  cheaper price. LITERATURE REVIEW 1. In the year, December 2010 Dr.Gaurav Agrawal, Aniruddh Kumar Srivastav & Ankita Srivastava had done A Study of Exchange Rates Movement and Stock Market Volatility. This research empirically examines the dynamics between the volatility of stock returns and movement of Rupee-Dollar exchange rates, in terms of the extent of interdependency and causality. 2. In the year, March 2011 RBI had done study on an empirical analysis of relation between currency future and exchange rates volatility in India. In this paper they have find a relationship between the exchange rate volatility and the trading activity in the currency futures.Trading in currency futures in USD-INR rates was permitted at the time when the financial crisis had hit the advanced economies. MONETARY POLICY UNDER FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES If exchange rates are fixed, then t he capital flow affects the stock of foreign exchange assets and the money supply. If the exchange rate is allowed to vary, then the exchange rate will change in response to the capital flow. Similarly, the policy change affects the level of economic activity. A change in income results in a changed demand for imports and net exports . he change in demand for imports affects the demand for foreign exchange and also has an impact on foreign exchange market. The third party of analysis accordingly identifies the impact of the change in the interest rate in the money market on the foreign exchange market-foreign exchange reserves or the exchange rate. As the exchange rate depreciates, the competitiveness of domestic economy improves and exports increases. The increase in money supply in a floating exchange rate regime with imperfect capital mobility thus resulting: A depreciation of the exchange rate. †¢ An increase in income †¢ A decline in interest rate †¢ An improveme nt in the current account balance BIBLIOGRAPHY †¢http://www. investopedia. com/terms/c/currency. asp#ixzz28ttvjLVD †¢http://www. mbaknol. com/managerial-economics/factors-affecting-the-exchange-rate-of-indian-rupee/ †¢http://www. marketoracle. co. uk/Article28468. html †¢www. ccsenet. org/ijbm †¢http://www. sapphireconsultinggroup. in/Rupee_appreciation. html#Executive http://www. investorwords. com/2186/GNP. html#ixzz2CsUdLeaQ APPENDICES BPOBPO is distinct from information technology (IT) outsourcing, which focuses on hiring a third-party company or service provider to do IT-related activities, such as application management and application development, data center operations, or testing and quality assurance. BOP A record of all transactions made between one particular country and all other countries during a specified period of time. BOP compares the dollar difference of the amount of exports and imports, including all financial exports and imports. A neg ative balance of payments means that more money is flowing out of the country than coming in, and vice versa.EXCHANGE RATE the exchange rate is the quantity of one currency required to buy or sell one unit of the other currency. FISCAL DEFICIT The difference between total revenue and total expenditure of the government is termed as fiscal deficit. It is an indication of the total borrowings needed by the government. While calculating the total revenue, borrowings are not included. FDI FDI refers more specifically to the investment of foreign assets into domestic goods and services. FOREIGN DEBT An outstanding loan that one country owes to another country or institutions within that country.Foreign debt also includes due payments to international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The debt may be comprised of fees for goods and services or outstanding credit due to a negative balance of trade. GNI The Gross national income (GNI) consists of: the personal con sumption expenditures, the gross private investment, the government consumption expenditures, the net income from assets abroad (net income receipts), and the gross exports of goods and services, after deducting two components: the gross imports of goods and services, and the indirect business taxes.GDP Gross Domestic Product, is a primary indicator used to assess the strength of a country’s economy representing the total value of all the goods and services produced over a particular time frame. GDP = C + G + I + NX Where, â€Å"C† is equal to all private consumption, or consumer spending, in a nation's economy â€Å"G† is the sum of government spending â€Å"I† is the sum of all the country's businesses spending on capital†NX† is the nation's total net exports, calculated as total exports minus total imports. (NX = Exports – Imports) GNPGross National Product. GNP is the total value of all final goods and services produced within a nat ion in a particular year, plus income earned by its citizens (including income of those located abroad), minus income of non-residents located in that country. IMF The IMF plays three major roles in the global monetary system. The Fund surveys and monitors economic and financial developments, lends funds to countries with balance-of-payment difficulties, and provides technical assistance and training for countries requesting it.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

A Study of the Events That Motivated My Identity

A Study of the Events That Motivated My Identity â€Å"I’m disappointed†, said my father after he saw the paper my teacher sent with my horrible test grade. I’ve always looked up to my father, so when he told me those words felt the shame piercing my soul. However, presently I am a hardworking person who has come far in school. The geeky glasses and pony tail add to my school girl look. Getting superior grades in school is one of my main priorities and it has been effective since I graduated in the top percent at my school. I’ve come far as a result of the dedication I put into my schoolwork. Throughout my life, I experienced many things that have that shaped who I am today, but that shameful event had the greatest impact on the person I’ve become. It taught me not to take things for granted and to always weight my options. In sixth grade they informed us of a state test that the students were required to take. We were told of its importance and difficulty. All my friends and classmates spent that year preparing while I passed the time watching TV and playing on the computer. I believed that I didn’t need to know any more information than what I knew in order to pass. I would say â€Å"Ill study tomorrow whenever my parents peeved about reviewing. When the day came, I sat down in that cold room and made a terrible realization; it was impossible to answer any of the questions. I just stared blankly at the clock and watched time pass while everyone around me completed the exam. When the results came back they reflected the horror I went through that day. My teacher became disappointed and sent a note to my parents. I let everyone down. The next year, I was forced to take remedial classes while my friends took classes like art or played outside. I stayed home and studied every day in order to retak e and pass the test. It was embarrassing that I acted carelessly and thought too high of myself. Consequently, I faced the consequences. That shameful experience taught me many valuable things. It helped me understand that I need to pay attention to the little things in life because they can impact our lives. I realized that I needed to work harder if I wanted a better future. Now I have a greater sense of my goals and priorities and no longer give up on my goals as easily as before. I work harder towards the things I want to achieve and try to focus more on my school work. These attributes are what helped me get accepted into my dream university and in am in one of the best colleges of the states with a scholarship. Everyone is made up of the experiences they faced. Events in our lives, whether large or small, shape the way we are. A shameful incident that marks who I am today was failing my exam at a young age. It made me into an intellectual student who is more focused on accomplishing her goals. It proved to me that we always learn from our past and our mistakes for we are the sum of our experiences and tomorrow we will become more than we are today.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Income Inequality in the UK Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Income Inequality in the UK - Coursework Example Beyond these market forces, however, there are a large range of other forces that have a drastic impact on final income in the United Kingdom. The government causes most of these differences through credits, welfare and taxes. There are four main ways that the government impacts a person or family’s take home income in the United Kingdom: cash benefits, non cash/in kind benefits, direct taxes and indirect taxes. These factors impact different levels of income very differently. Typically (though not always), benefits have an inverse relationship to income (going up as income goes down), while taxes have are directly related to income, rising as income rises. These factors, however, tend to be logarithmic rather than linear, increasing and decreasing at rates disproportional to changes in income. Taxes tend to rise at a greater rate than benefits decrease. For instance, at the lowest quartile of income, a family would earn 1,920 pounds of direct income, but would get in the orde r of 4.5 thousand pounds of tax benefits, plus around 3.5 thousand pounds of benefits in kind. For the top quartile, with an income of 39,370 pounds, these benefits would drop to the order of one thousand and two thousand pounds respectively. Thus, from the bottom to the top quartile benefits drop to about one quarter of their rate for the bottom quartile. Taxes, however, change at a much more rapid pace. The lowest quartile of tax-payers pays only about 790 pounds of direct taxes, plus indirect taxes in the order of 1,170 pounds. Someone in the top quartile would pay more in the order of 10,000 pounds in direct taxes, plus an additional 5,000 pounds of indirect taxes. This whole system means that for people in the lowest three quartiles, (anywhere up to about 13,000 pounds annually) actually take home more than they make after accounting for benefits and taxes, while people in the top two, making between twenty and forty thousand dollars, take home a lot less. Assessing tax burden is a somewhat complicated question. If one compares only taxes to original income, clearly the poorest pay the greatest taxes – almost as much in taxes as they make. However, once benefits are accounted for, they pay much less, only about one quarter of their income in taxes. The top quartile, when taking everything into account, bears the greatest tax burden, given that they pay both the largest absolute amount and the highest percentage. Furthermore, they benefit less from the taxes they pay than others – they pay taxes that go to supporting people in the lower quartiles. They, however, still retain the higest disposable income by a large margin, and thus their â€Å"tax burden† is less burdensome than a much smaller amount would be to a lower income person. Finally, it is interesting that the total percentage of taxes paid does not change drastically from the lowest to the top quartile once benefits are accounted for – each group pays about 1 out of ev ery 4 pounds made to the government. The people in the lowest quartile certainly gain the most from this system. They gain a net of approximately 6,000 pounds, or 300 % of their initial income, when all is said and done. This advantage drops precipitously as income rises: someone making 5,000 pounds annually, despite making more than 3,000 pounds more than the bottom quartile, only takes home approximately 1,000 pounds more at the end of the day. This means that the benefit from the system drops from 300%

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Financial Markets and Risk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Financial Markets and Risk - Essay Example The long term savings and investment products offered by banks and NBFI’s are mostly life assurance, pensions and other investment products such as fixed deposits with a long term maturity. Fixed deposits are time deposits which give a higher interest rate than the normal demand deposits. Pension products are aimed at meeting the retirement needs of investors wherein a lump sum amount is given to the investor which is accrued over the years. Investing in bonds (government and corporate) is another option where there is more safety even though the returns may be comparatively less. Some banks and many NBFI’s provide platform to invest in mutual funds also. II. Implications for individual savers and investors of a significant increase in the general interest rates. The most visible effect due to the increase in interest rates is on the loans borrowed and deposits made by individuals. An increase in interest rate means increase in the repo rates of banks. This will result in an increase in the mortgage loans’ interest as well as other loans and debts like credit card debt. The increase in interest rate on loans will force the individuals who already borrowed the loans to pay more on the interest and this will lead to fewer savings. Those who had plans to borrow loan will postpone the same in order to be relieved of the extra burden of higher interest repayment. Another aspect is with the timing preference of making deposit. Since the interest rate is high, the return on investment from banks in the form of deposits will also be high which will prompt the individuals to make more investments out of their savings. Exchange rate changes can also be an effect of interest rate change. When the interest rate increases, there will be more inflow of foreign money in the form of FIIs. This will lead to an increase in the value of the domestic currency. The implications are that, the individuals who invested in foreign currency will see their value of i nvestment come down in terms of domestic currency due to the decrease in value of the foreign currency, other factors remaining the same. Also this will make imported goods relatively cheaper to the domestic buyers which in turn force the domestic producers to reduce their products’ price which means more savings for the individual. Rise in interest rates will also affect stock and securities like bonds. When interest rate rises, the price of existing bond falls. This is because investors can get higher rates on newly issued bonds. A rising interest rate may affect the stock market also because 1) investors will turn to buy bonds as they give better yield, 2) investors need to pay more to borrow money and spend them, which will lead to a slump in the growth of many companies which produce consumer goods. III. Risks to commercial banks of a significant rise in general interest rates. All banks face interest rate risks. Changes in interest rate can reduce a bank’s earnin gs and lower its net worth. Interest rate risk is defined as the volatility in earnings or the value of a financial institution owing to unexpected changes in interest rates. â€Å"The chief source of interest rate risk is the mismatched re-pricing of a financial intermediary’s assets and liabilities.†

Why do nurses eat their young Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Why do nurses eat their young - Term Paper Example Nurses who are older and who have more experience have the reputation on shunning the younger nurses away, making life difficult for them, in other words ‘eating’ them. For which reason, the younger nurses often experience great difficulty in starting their practice. Some of them often even end up leaving the profession altogether. This paper shall discuss and resolve issues on the question: why do nurses eat their young? This question is being answered in the hope of establishing a comprehensive and academic answer to this query and in the hope of improving the transition for younger nurses into the practice. Review of literature Various studies have been carried out on nurses eating their young. For purposes of this discussion, this practice shall also be referred to as horizontal violence among nurses. In a paper by Woelfe and McCaffrey (2007), the authors set out to evaluate if horizontal violence in the workplace is present in nursing and if it is, its relationship to patient care. This study was carried out as a literature review of articles published from 2003 and 2004 from nursing research databases. This study revealed that horizontal violence does exist in nursing today (Woelfe and McCaffrey, 2007). The study revealed that horizontal violence exists in the current context and it affects most areas of the nursing practice. In instances when tension is elevated in patient care areas, the nursing staff is often not likely to be at their best performance and the quality of their patient care is compromised. In a similar study by Oztunc (2007), the author set out to evaluate the incidents of verbal abuse encountered by nurses in the workplace. Data was gathered in about 290 hospital nurses in Turkey. The study soon established that most nurses faced verbal abuse. It also confirmed that there is a need to implement urgent and continuous plans in addressing verbal abuse in the workplace and in the adoption of zero tolerance (Oztunc, 2007). In ef fect, this study highlighted the alarming increase in violence between nurses which mostly registers as verbal abuse and bullying in the workplace. In a paper by Johnson (2009), the authors evaluated the nursing literature on workplace bullying in order to establish a better understanding of these incidents in the workplace. The CINAHL, PubMed, Pro Quest, and EBSCO databases were searched. This study revealed that workplace bullying is not just a simple contract between two individuals. This is also a complicated incident which can be understood by evaluating social and organizational factors (Johnson, 2009). Bullying has been known to affect the physical and psychological issues of victims, including their work performance. It also impacts on organizations due to their decreased productivity, increased sick time, and reduced quality of work (Johnson, 2009). The incidence of workplace violence and bullying in the nursing profession was also discussed by Hutchinson, et.al. (2006), th e authors discussed that workplace bullying is a significant issue in the nursing profession. It is often described in terms of oppressed group behavior. The oppressed group theory has set forth only minimal understanding of this phenomenon in nursing. This theory is said to place too much of an emphasis on bullying as a phenomenon in nursing, not one which is common in other professions as well (Hutchinson, et.al., 2006). Alternative methods of understanding this phenomenon have instead been suggested by other theorists in order to understand nursing workplace bullying. Saunders, et.al., (2007) discussed that various attempts at defining

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Quiz Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 11

Quiz - Essay Example 2. Mainly, there are three levels of technical audience to whom a technical document addresses. These are the lay persons, the technicians and the experts. When creating any documentation, there is a need to consider the targeted audience in that their level of mastery in the field differs. In other words, a document that targets the lay persons should not contain too much technicalities, while one that targets experts has to be in a sophisticated level of technicality. Experts possess advanced knowledge in the field and they do recognize one another by decoding the advance jargon and technicalities to make meaning from a document. On the contrary, the lay persons and the technicians may need synthesizing of some technical elements to make adequate meaning of the document. 3. The use of visuals is important in any technical document. Visuals and images do communicate major elements and facts that may take long to express through words, or which may be difficult to express. The benefit is that not only does the use of visuals shorten the documentation, but it also offers concise understanding of the presented concepts and brings out the different communicated concepts in a simplified manner by stressing how the different components of an item relate to make whole. 4. An example of a technical document is given above. The document would be more likely to be used in symposiums and in institutions of higher learning targeting experts and technicians in audio technology. This is because; the document highlights major developments and directions in the field of audio technology. The document serves the above audience best in that it offers concise understanding of what has been done, what is being done and the future direction in the field. The aim is to place students and experts in a better position to research future in the field equipped with the previous, current and expected future

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Freedom of Expression As Curtailed In the First Amendment Research Paper

Freedom of Expression As Curtailed In the First Amendment - Research Paper Example This research is being carried out to establish the source from which the concept of Sedition is originated. In the US for instance, the Constitution as evidenced in the First Amendment provides for freedom of religion and expression. Similar constitutes on free speech, press, Â  and to petition assembly and address for grievances, and the implied rights of association and belief. The Supreme Court’s interpretation of the degree of protection accorded by these rights also applies to the federal government in its entirety. Moreover, the Court has on a number of occasions applied an interpretation technique to the due process as curtailed in the Fourteenth Amendment as a clause meant to protect individuals from interference by state governments. fundamental components of liberty of expression include the right of autonomy to speech and press independence. Freedom of expression permits people to communicate without any form of intrusion from the authority. The Supreme Court has prominence on matters involving the government and interference to press freedom and freedom of association. The content-neutral legislation applies such strict mechanisms. The Supreme Court further documented the fact that a federal or central government posses power. This prevents speech that might facilitate a breach of the peace or promote aggression. The concept of sedation originated as a provision for rights to freedom and expression as provided in the country’s constitution. Sedition Sedation is defined as issuing statements that are likely to incite the public against the government. Sedition is a common law offense that is usually expressed through acts of intention aimed at Generating hatred between the public and the government Cause an unlawful issuance or publication of materials that dishonors the government Considering the points stated above, sedation could be described as unlawful language that may jeopardize state’s security. A statement or an action is considered an act of sedation if it threatens state’s security or incites hatred among the people. This description raises serious issues on the role of press freedom and the ability to sustain a free press. Certainly, press freedom and freedom of expression cannot thrive in the midst of sedation. Brief Historical Origin of the Concept The concept of sedation was developed in 1798 and 1801, following the threats of a French invasion. Prior to the developments, nearly twenty-six individuals had been charged in the federal court for publishing or collaborating in the printing of counterfeit news. In addition, people would be charged in a court of law for speaking in public with the intention of undermining the regime. Media house owners and other prominent personalities were detained and charged with treason and unlawful conduct. For example, publishing an article on John Adams the US led to the arrest of the journalist behind the story. In this case, political opponents of the government were the main defendants. The prosecution and judicial preceding raised heated debate on the role of a free press within a democratic country. The first federal trial connected to the case led to a widespread public uproar that threatened the credibility of the judicial service. This promoted discussions on political impudence and the role of judges on press freedom matters. The case further raised concern on the relationship between the state and the judiciary. Arguably, the judiciary is supposed to be an independent state authority that is free from the influence of the government. The Act which was passed in July 1798 but which until now has been subjected to numerous amendments, has provision for the punishment of people and journalists who make false declarations with the intentionally of defaming the federal

Monday, September 23, 2019

Local or National Healthcare Policy or Regulation Problem Essay

Local or National Healthcare Policy or Regulation Problem - Essay Example For instance, the victims were found not be involved in physical activities that assist in cutting down body fats (Natarajan, 2010). In addition, their lifestyles were questionable. Through the information found in the report, healthcare policy makers can be able to embark on ways in which to assist the obese people. Obesity viewed as a failure of an individual by uncontrolled eating, lack of exercise among other poor health practices (Natarajan, 2010). The author of the article was biased with regard to the subject of obesity. The author outlines the factors that influenced obesity to be only personal factors like reckless eating habits and lack of physical exercise. Nevertheless, obesity is also genetic, and at times, it is a medical condition. Even when an individual tries to cut down fatty foods, the individual is still termed as obese (Natarajan, 2010). Therefore, lifestyle cannot be considered the only reason for obesity. Therefore, when addressing the issue healthcare managers and policy makers should not be biased and should not blame the victims for their health condition. Instead, the individuals should be addressed appropriately without hurting their feelings. The author supports the information in the article by providing some statistical evidence of how the obese people conduct their lives. As a result, a number of obese victims were found to live a reckless life and were lazy to get involved in physical activities. The author further adds that if the condition is not controlled healthcare providers will undergo an extra cost in dealing with obese people. In addition, the author adds, people should understand the factors that enhance obesity to control the problem. Obesity raises a number of health concerns, and if proper assistance provided the issue can be tackled (Natarajan, 2010). Obesity is a global concern and the healthcare providers and policy makers should address the issue with

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Understanding the Novel Housekeeping Essay Example for Free

Understanding the Novel Housekeeping Essay The novel entitled â€Å"Housekeeping† is written by one of the most famous and talented author, Marilynne Robinson. As one of the certified Pulitzer Prize-winning authors, Marilynne Robinson’s 1980 novel called the â€Å"Housekeeping† has been nominated for the category of Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, which later-on she also won for another novel entitled Gilead that paved the way for her Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award for best first novel. As of the present time, this novel continues to receive and gain broad recognitions and honors that commemorate the work and contribution of a great American author in the industry of publishing and American literary writing scene. In the year 2003, the Guardian unlimited, a British online site owned by Guardian Media Group, named the novel â€Å"Housekeeping† as one of their top 100 list of selection of greatest novels of all time. In addition to this, the Time Magazine, one of the giants in the publishing business, included the said novel of Marilynne Robinson â€Å"Housekeeping† in their TIME 100 Best English-language Novels from 1923 to 2005. This inclusion and recognition shows the sterling quality of the novel and its elements. In a sense, there are various reasons and apparent explanations as to how and why this novel of Marilynne Robinson continues to attract the interest of the readers and still remain as one of the ever significant stories that has been written. One of the better rationales is that â€Å"Housekeeping,† just like any other widely admired novels, is written with a very strong plot that is designed to directly present and depict a significant personality and character through the representation of Ruth, one of the leading characters in the novel. In this regard, this essay would directly draw a clear picture and discussion about the character of Ruth and her identity in the main narrative of the novel. In the novel, Ruth is mainly depicted and stood as a character which has a stong personality that is composed and firm despite the negative events that have happened in their family and between her and Lucille, who is her sister. Ruth is presented in the main narrative of the novel as a brave woman who is filled with hopes and beliefs with their family and their eccentric way of living. Set to live and grow-up with a dysfunctional family, where she and her sister, Lucille, are abandoned by their biological parents with their mother committing a suicide, it is observable that the presentation of Ruth in the novel is a paradigm that the author has used to illustrate specific characteristics of an individual who is brave enough to live and move on with what he or she believes is right. As for the own perception of Ruth, it is observable that staying and living under the eccentric way of life by their family is what makes her complete as a person and as a normal individual on this world. In respect to the representation of Ruth, it is apparent that the main narrative of the novel further strengthens the notion that Ruth, though has been through different pictures and stories of pain and difficulties with her experiences of a dysfunctional family, still has that belief about the primary stance and role of family to her life as a living entity in their community. As seen apparent to the novel’s story, Ruths standpoint is that her family is the primal basis that gives her that distinct identity as a normal entity in this world. Ruth believes that living and adhering to their unconventional family lifestyle, more especially according to the life of her Auntie, Sylvie, renders her the particular details as a living member of their society. Thus, unlike her sister, Lucile, Ruth takes pride in living her life according to the legacy of their family despite of all the difficulties and many questions that she has in mind. Despite of the many differences and misunderstandings that she has against her younger sibling, Lucille, she has remained to be a loving and caring older sister for Lucille. As seen apparent in the narrative of the novel, Ruth’s character is an example of a typical protective and concerned elder sister for Lucille where she has stood before her sister for security. Ruth also expressed her love for her younger sister through their shared collection of quality and happy moments spent together prior to the decision of Lucille to go the opposite way and live a conventional life with another family residing in town. In addition to this, Ruths character is also affectionate and emotional as she grieved with so much pain with the departure of her sister to live a different way of life. Moreover, it can also be said that Ruth, despite the characteristic of being brave and composed in pursuing and sticking with the what she believe is right, is a character filled with different confusions and questions which she tries to find specific answers and enlightenment for. As the main narrator of the novel, who tells mostly the story of her experiences from childhood up to womanhood, Ruth herself has numerous thoughts and issues that she can not even answer by her self. There are things and actions that she is seeing, more especially from the eccentric lifestyle of her Auntie Sylvie and her grandmother from the moment they are forsaken by their own parents. Thus, Ruth’s main personality and character is shaped by many of her own undertakings and events in her life that leads her to be coherent in such a way that she is independent to make any decisions that is based from her own way of thinking. As compared to her sister, Lucille, Ruth is more composed and firm as she refused to embrace the extensive influence of the outside forces such as the predominance of modern civilization and beliefs of many individuals that surrounds them. Ruth is a character in the novel which has played a rather distinct important role. She served as the narrator of the story and her viewpoint says the distinct taste of the novel and it is on her personality from which the story depends on. She has a little sister whom she grew up with and as she became nonetheless taller than the rest, there is the need for her sister Lucille to remove the heels of the shoes in order for her to be able to move more naturally and allow her to stand more normally. In this respect, it is seen that Marilynne Robinson, the author of the novel, has the similar characteristic where she remains taller than the rest but tries to remove the heels that sets her apart from the rest. More so, she tries to remove the false pretentions and high expectations which come from the current notions of fiction from the people. Another characteristic of Ruth in the story is her ability to follow and adopt a particular characteristic that is embodied in the values of her mother. According to one statement of Ruth in the novel, the requests of her mother to wait for her has â€Å"established in me the habit of waiting and expectation which make any present moment most significant for what it does not contain† (Robinson, 214). This particular characteristic of Ruth, as a character in the novel, has shown her to be a child patiently and dreamingly wishes of a parent who has abandoned her. As her mother left them in the care of one another, they have continuously and expectedly tried to contain all the hardships and patiently waited for something which they are unsure would come to them anymore. Works Cited Robinson, Marilynne. Housekeeping: A Novel. New York: St Martins Pr, 2004.

Friday, September 20, 2019

How Joseph Nicéphore contributed to the early development of photography.

How Joseph Nicà ©phore contributed to the early development of photography. How Joseph Nicà ©phore contributed to the early development of photography. Born Joseph Nià ©pce March 7th 1765, Nià ©pce developed Heliography, a process of printing, which then lead on to the creation of world oldest surviving product of a photography process. A military veteran and previous teacher, Nià ©pce found a passion for inventing working alongside his older brother Claude, during their time working together they made many successful inventions including; The pyrà ©ophore: the world’s first internal combustion engine for propelling boats. Therefor photography wasn’t his first interest and he spent almost 20 years with his brother Claude promoting and improving The Pyrà ©ophore, which then resulted in Claude moving to England. During this time the only time to capture a moment was by using a Camera Obscura, a device which consists of a box or a room with a hole in one side. Light from an external scene then passes through the hole and strikes a surface inside the box where it is reproduced rotated 180 degrees but with the colour perspective preserved. The image then could be projected on the paper in which then it can be traced using a steady hand and patience. Nicà ©phore used this method many times but felt he did not have the skilful hand in drawing to pursue this method effectively. Then during 1813 the invention of Lithography swept France, Lithography was a printing process in which it used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum Arabic, etching the proportions of the stone which were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone is subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; an oil-based ink could then be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original. The ink would then finally be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This method was made from the concept of oil and water being unable to mix. This new craze then caught Nicà ©phore’s attention after there being many inventors who trialled and tested the camera obscura and finding a way to reproduced and image without having to drawing it yourself. Nicà ©phore trailed the use of lithography with the camera obsucra for six years until he finally came up with Heliography. Heliography is a process which uses Bitumen of Judea, a naturally occurring asphalt, as a coating on glass or metal, the glass or metal is the inserted into the camera obscura in place where the light will come through the hole. It hardens in proportion to its exposure to light, when the plate is washed with oil of lavender only the hardened areas remained, producing a photo printed on the glass or metal. After mastering this process Nicà ©phore travelled to England in 1827 to visit his older brother Claude, there he was introduced to Francis Bauer, a noted botanist, who recognised the importance of Nicà ©phore and encouraged him to write about his invention of heliography. Bauer then went on to help Nicà ©phore in producing his work by providing introductions to present his paper and heliographs to the Royal Society. All of the specimens in which Nicà ©phore referred to as ‘Les Premiers’, were rejected and returned to him because he chose not to fully disclose his process. After this Nicà ©phore returned to Le Gras continuing his experiments, in 1829 he agreed to a ten year partnership with Louis Jacques Mandà © Daguerre to help develop his work. Nicà ©phore continued with his experiments hoping for recognition and success with heliography. During this time both Nicà ©phore and Daguerre were working together to create Daguerreotype, a printing process which devel oped from heliography. Daguerreotype is made by coating a copper plate with a silver iodide and being exposed to light in the camera obscura, the copper plate is then fumed with a mercury vapour and fixed by a solution of salt, forming a permanent image. The first image produced using the Daguerreotype was in 1837, by which time Nicà ©phore had died, so it was a name in which Daguerre took. Daguerreotype then became very commercialised and shadowed Nicà ©phore and his progression with Heliography to form Daguerreotype due to his partner taking most of the credit. Even though Daguerre went on to name the process and get the profit, without Nicà ©phore the process wouldn’t have even existed for Daguerre to succeed in. The early development of photography was created and pioneered by many people, it was almost as if every single inventor put their own input into the creation of photography. Nicephore was inspired by Lithography invented by Alois Senefelder and The Camera Obscura invented by Alhazen from this Nicephore then shared his passion and influenced his parted Daguerre who then went on to inspire and develop more methods of photography to the point were at today. It is still being debated now upon who in fact took the first photograph, it is stated throughout Geoffrey Batchen’s â€Å"burning with desire; the concept of photography† in chapter four that there is many possibilities into which the first ever photograph was and who was the photographer. The pictures promise more stable evidence for the point of origin to the history of the medium, but historians have offered very little detail analysis of the images at issue so there is no exact date upon what photo or what process was first. Nicephore is mentioned and his photographs are analysed within this chapter, it describes the trials he went through to get to the creation of heliography and the photos and prints that still remain to this day. The one photo that was spoke about the most was his â€Å"View from the window at Le Gras 1827,† it speaks about how they tried to reproduce this photo but failed due to the ‘foundation stone’ being impossible to rep roduce, it was then sent to Kodak Research Laboratory where they produced what Gernsheim describes as a â€Å"greatly distorted image which no way corresponded with the original. A travesty of the truth.† Consequently Gernsheim then went on to touch up this copy for two days with water colour abolishing hundreds of light spots and blotches and giving the image a â€Å"pointillistic effect† that he admits is completely unfamiliar to the medium. He reassured the people that it was only an estimate of the original and it was similar to the drawing that he has made before any of the reproductions had even existed. This image then went on to feauture in his ‘The photographic journal’ in 1952; it appears as â€Å"the world’s earliest photograph† in his The Origins of photography 1982. The same reproduction of the photo and claim also appear in a vast number of more recent histories of photography. Even though the Daguerreotype overshadowed Nicà ©phore’s hard work and determination with heliography at the time, he is still remembered today to be a pioneer and inventor in photography, and for him to still be looked back on today proves how much of and influence he was to our world. Without his determination and curiosity we wouldn’t have the ability to capture and keep a moment or share it with the world and potentially pursue and career in the profession. BBC GCSE Physics The invention of photography by Nicephore Niepce. 2014. BBC GCSE Physics The invention of photography by Nicephore Niepce. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/clips/z7w34wx. [Accessed 8th November 2014 heliography YouTube. 2014. heliography YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JAeXQ_IHdE. [Accessed 11th November 2014]. History of photography: Nià ©pce pictures. 2014. History of photography: Nià ©pce pictures. [ONLINE] Available at: http://akvis.com/en/articles/photo-history/niepce.php. [Accessed 11th November 2014]. Joseph Nicà ©phore Nià ©pce: The First Photograph. 2014. Joseph Nicà ©phore Nià ©pce: The First Photograph. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/permanent/firstphotograph/niepce/. [Accessed 8th November 2014]. Geoffrey Batchen (1999). Burning With Desire: The Conception Of Photography. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge, Mass. : The MIT Press. p120-p127.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre :: Our Lady of Charity South Florida

La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre One of the primary unifying forces of the Cuban community in South Florida is La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre, or Our Lady of Charity. In 1898, after Cuba won its independence from Spain, she became the official patroness of the island. The Cuban soldiers credited their victory to the Virgin's intervention in their crusade for independence. The Virgin is seen as a religious tradition that strongly unites Cubans on both sides of the Florida Straits. In South Florida, Cubans throughout the United States gather each year to celebrate the feast of Our Lady of Charity on September the eighth. Alongside the traditional Catholic service, many within the exile congregation offer their hopes and prayers, to the Virgin, for a Cuba free from communism. Though Cuba is where the celebration of La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre originated, each year, her statue, which was smuggled out of Cuba in 1961, is ferried by boat to Miami Marine Stadium. The reason for smuggling the statue, a scant two years after Fidel's revolution, was because the Catholic religion was not allowed to be openly practiced within Cuba. In recent years, a mass has been celebrated to honor La Virgen at the Hialeah racetrack. Taking all these South Florida celebrations into account, one could say that the Virgin plays an important role in the lives of many Cuban men and women who make the journey from Cuba to the free shores of the Florida coastline. They rely on her for protection and guidance while journeying across the Caribbean Sea. La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre as well as La Ermita de la Caridad del Cobre, the church that was constructed in her honor, have both become important Cuban cultural landmarks. Built along a stretch of Biscayne Bay, her shrine was completed with the donations of newly arrived Cuban exiles. The $420,000 raised helped pay for the construction costs. La Ermita can be seen as a unifying force for the Cuban population in South Florida; with the entire community contributing to the construction and maintenance of this site, she belongs to everyone.

Against The Privacy Of Aids :: Free AIDS Essays

Last October, the case of Nushawn Williams hit the front pages. He is believed to have infected at least 13 girls and women in Jamestown, New York, with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. His name and face appeared all over the media, shredding the accepted norm of keeping HIV status confidential. In breaking this tradition, public health officials sought to identify and reach the young women he may have infected. Due to this breaking of the silence and reporting the name of the person with this infectious disease at least some women had a greater chance of living because they found out about the virus at an early state. Individuals who are identified by name on disease reports can be contacted by health departments for treatment. Fear of being identified on disease reports could deter people from seeking medical care or disease testing, therefore harming the individual by causing delays in care and threatening public health because such delays could results in further spread of diseas e. Name reporting of persons with infectious diseases has the potential to benefit both individual and public health.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Name reporting of persons with infectious disease can benefit the individual person. It could enable health officials to find and counsel people who test positive, but do not return for their results or who are tested in venues that do not provide extensive educational opportunities. Such contacts could also lead to medical referrals and earlier viral loads and CD4 testing, resulting in more timely treatment and reductions in viral loads that could not only improve the individual health but, at least, theoretically, also improve the public health by reducing the infectiousness of individuals. Furthermore, there have been recent studies on new therapies that can keep HIV-positive people healthy for years. These therapies are a combination of drugs that effectively reduce the amount of HIV in the blood. People have the greatest chances of success with these therapies if they begin treatment early on, and they can’t be treated if they don’t know that th ey are infected and their names are not found somewhere so that they could be at least consulted. To insure that the information recorded about an individual is not used to discriminate them a law could be passed. Something like this already exists, were you can not discriminate a person if they are gay, black, white, etc., therefore, you have to hire the person if they are fully qualified

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Comunist China And Civil Rights Violations Essay -- essays research pa

China is famous throughout history for both Tieneman square, and capitol punishment . These are each examples of human rights violations. Communist China's one child policy Is yet another example. China's one child policy was stared in 1979 as an attempt to solve their overpopulation problem. The policy states that every couple in China is allowed only one child. In order for a couple to have a child they must first have a birth coupon issued by the government before giving birth to the child. "Birth Quotas" are determined in order to have surveillance of the people who have all ready had their single child allowed to them born. The women of China must deal with their menstrual cycle being monitored publicly to stop the possibility of having a second child. They also must face pelvic examinations if they are even suspected of being impregnated. Any unauthoized pregnancies are terminated by an aboution regardless of the pregnancies progression. Graphically, The baby's head is crushed and then pulled out of the woman, just to name one of the many grusome abortion practices, killing the baby, and torturing the woman. The Chinese law has horrible effect's on the country's major population. Many Infant's are abandoned, or brutally killed at home to cut down upon expenses and fines issued by the government. In 1993 ultrasound machines were in mas importation to China, however in 1993 the use of these machines ...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Abridged Literature Review

Many institutions seek authentic and ethical leadership personalities, as a widening body of literature addresses the styles of leadership and their perceived outcome in institutional performance. Servant-leadership, coined by Robert Greenleaf (1970), has spanned a substantial amount of literal interest (SanFacon & Spears, 2010) but there lacks enough empirical evidence regarding the actual demonstration and utilization of servant- leadership in institutions (Crippen, 2005).Worth noting is that practices in most of the current organizations today are geared towards individual interests, and imbedding these profit goals with servant-leadership seems mythical. Various leadership models are applied in education and business institutions. These include servant-leadership, transformational leadership and business leadership models (Hawkins, 2009). Servant-leadership is the most desired model for educational leadership because education imparts the lives of people in all aspects in both in dividual and societal life (Crippen, 2005; Normore, 2010).While campaigning for board membership at schools, most aspiring leaders promise to give back to the society, an admirable quality of a servant-leader. However, as Cassel and Holt (2008) establish, servant-leadership exists only in a literal sense in schools, and there is still a lot to be done as far as actualizing servant-leadership is concerned. Currently, schools are out to seek ways of improving the quality of education and much faith is based on servant- leadership for this objective (Crippen, 2005b; Silva, 2010).Proprietorship in higher education is in existence today, compromising the quality of leadership, yet exemplified real life situations of servant-leadership can be demonstrated through educational leadership of outstanding, highly regarded leaders like Dr. Jim Otten. Concepts of leadership are taught and at the same time practiced in education, and therefore it is important to analyze how servant- leadership ar ticulates with leadership in the education sector. The servant-leadership traits coined by Spears (Crippen, 2005a.) include; listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of others and building community, and have been identified in various literatures. Cassel and Holt (2008) humorously point out that being an unpaid member of the school board does not guarantee one to be a servant-leader, as is the situation in schools, but the ability to exercise the ten innate qualities of leadership. These qualities have been defined by Crippen (2005b. ) through combining the description of other several authors.Listening involves paying a high level of attentiveness and commitment in listening. Boyum (2008) and Crippen (2005) draws the description of servant-leadership from the historical and philosophical works of Greenleaf whereby a servant-leader is described as one who has the innate value and desire to serve others. This indicates that a servant-leader would prioritize the needs of others before the individual self, with the desire to see the followers excel in body, mind and spirit, as a result of their leadership.The servant-leader therefore possesses one of the traits described by Spear (1998) and that is commitment to the growth of others. Additionally, Boyum (2008) highlights two distinguishing features of effective leadership, as being built on relational and interpersonal perspectives. Serving others mean that one has to relate with the followers at personal level, identify and meet their needs through the leadership process. Transformational, transactional and servant-leadership all meet the aspects of interpersonal and interrelation leadership (Boyum, 2008).However, while transformational and transactional leadership encourage interrelationships for the sake of achieving the goals of the leader, servant-leadership focuses on the goals of the followers (Buyom, 2008; Hawkins, 2009; Whale , 2004). How then can the model of servant-leadership be applicable in educational institutes considering that the control-kind of traditional leadership method is rooted in our systems, and that profit-making has become the main center of focus in the institutions? According to Crippen (2005b.) the answer lies in Greenleaf’s philosophy where teachers are cited to have sufficient latitude to nurture the model in young people. Higher education institutes have been faced with leadership crises over the years. According to Normore (2010), environmental pressure changes brought about by globalization, competition and technology among other aspects warrants the change in leadership tactics at the higher education institutes. However, higher education institutes have been at the forefront in teaching and recommending leadership practices, but reluctant in embracing favorable leadership models for their own practice.Normore (2010) reviews the work of Michael Fullan and Geoff Scott ( 2009) who assert that cultural change in the institutions and capacity of leadership must mirror each other. It is only through proactive leadership that the higher education institutions can effectively handle the growing challenges facing the institutions. A proactive leader is one who takes part in the leadership process through subjectivity in the activities of the followers. On the other hand, transactional kind of leadership involves control and creates a sharp distinction between the leaders and the subordinates.Transactional leadership therefore, does not involve being proactive because all the leader has to do is command or give orders of which the subordinates must follow without questioning or doubt, despite whether the outcome is beneficial or disastrous. This kind of leader as cited by Normore (2010) through the works of Fullan and Scott is not equipped to handle the current challenges facing the higher education learning institutes. Unlike the traditional control kind of leadership that gets followers to work through fear and obedience, servant-leadership achieves the same outcome through trust and respect.The leader’s ability to relate with followers and empathize in their situation enables a bond of trust to form between the two parties. People who trust their leaders are able to share openly on information and ideas that will enable development of the society (Shugart, 1999). Notably, transformational leadership also creates a bond of trust where the leaders can delegate duties to the employees while they explore other opportunities for success (Hawkins, 2009). The employees work on the basis of trust and loyalty irrespective of the gain.Trust as cited by Cassel and Holt (2008) can be achieved where the leaders avoid micro managing all aspects in the organizations and let the followers develop through decentralization of leadership. Thomas and Wohlstetter (2010) compare the development progress of various district schools in relation to the community, and their findings reveal that leadership determined the success of the projects a lot. Success was observed where the leaders participated on a hands-on basis rather than control and micromanaging.The society needs people who are empowered to get involved in successful ventures and is only through being led by a servant-leader. The educational institutes need leaders who have the ability to listen, lead and link (Normore 2010). This is also in accordance to the leadership trait outlined by Spear (1998). Listening to subordinates requires a leader with humility, and the trait of humility is associated with servants, unlike in the much upheld transactional leadership where commanding authority is preferred to humbleness.Shugart (1999) highlights the unfortunate situation where transactional leadership has borne egocentric leaders who lead, not on a visionary basis but by their ability to force their own thoughts on followers; a dictatorship kind of rule. Basing in thi s century where transfer of knowledge and innovation are the order of the day, it will be difficult for a powerful authoritative leader to encourage the followers’ thinking into substantiality, and this means that other than the theoretical aspect, the students in universities are not equipped with self- innovative skills where servant-leadership is lacking.Leading entails that the leader is a steward. A steward, according to Shugart (1999) is one who leads the college thoughtfully through challenging times, with the future in focus. A steward ensures that the vision of the college comes to life and is felt at both institutional and societal level. Similarly to Normore (2010), Shugart (1999) agrees that change and continuity should be in coexistence. A steward therefore is responsible in linking the university to the larger society through coherence in terms of communication, diplomacy, persuasion and pubic advocacy (p. 1).According Boyum (2008), values are incorporated in st ewardship. A servant-leader is grounded in values, manages by values and has vision or foresight just as implicated in Spear’s traits of servant- leadership. The issue of values is significant in the context of educational leadership. Familiarly, there have been concerns about practices of turning institutions into business ventures. Earning from an investment cannot be considered evil as such, but it is the practices behind the venture that raises eyebrows; and this entails venturing in both ethical and non ethical practices as long as money is forthcoming.This is one issue that calls for quality management of educational institutions, and it is time that academic institutions face a turnaround in leadership. Normore (2010) highlights that higher education institutes hold greater influences on the lives of students in the future, in relation to the university academy and the society at large. Therefore, leadership practices considered to be ethical and of value should be tau ght and implemented at this stage of the students lives (Herman &Marlowe, 2005). Normore’s (2010) observation aligns with that of Boyum (2008) and Shugart (1999) concerning service to the individual and the society.The component of service to the society was stressed by Robert Greenleaf (Boyum, 1998) an outstanding philosopher in the work of servant-leadership. If these qualities of leadership can enable the higher education institutes to overcome challenges in the 21st century, and place themselves in better positions to achieve their visions in the future; and if these qualities are innate in the servant-leaders, (Wis, 2002) then it is time that higher education institutions embrace servant-leadership in actual practice.Many educational leaders admit that these are tough economic times, and coping with such time require a change of management styles at the institutions (Negron, 2010). However, there are no significant changes embraced in terms of attaining a leadership styl e that can enable higher education institutes cope with the situation. Negron (2010) reviews the quotations of various personalities like policy makers, philanthropists and university presidents among others where the common agenda was to initiate campaign leadership that calls for structures which fit in today’s society.A 2008 study by Waks is illustrated by Ellet (2010) which involved two dozens of influential educational philosophers who were willing to write about their early and current experiences in the field of education, through a semi-structured and open-ended questions interview prepared by Waks (2008). The purpose was to find out the rationale under which a concept is determined through empirical research. The educators point on the importance of using conceptual analysis through critical thinking for the purpose of developing and defending educational goals that are of importance.This means that the students’ rights to quality education despite the proprie ty expectancy of the institution must be upheld. Students need to be equipped with knowledge and skills that will enable them to survive well in the society as well as contribute to the society’s development. Importantly, students need to be equipped with good leadership skills to enable them become good leaders after their teachers (Moore & Berry, 2010; Bowman, 2005). This can only be achieved if there a high coordination and mutual corporation between the associates, superiors and subordinates of the institution.Together they can identify the requirements of the students at the present era and sort out the kind of curricular to be incorporated in the education system. However, where self-interests exceed the societal expectation, it will be difficult to come up with honest, visionary strategies that will benefit students and the community. Servant-leadership therefore requires that the leader be grounded in values (Boyum, 2008) as already stated. A leader who foregoes his d esire to make a lot of money at the expense of the kind of education delivered on the universities.A leader filled with awareness and is able to reconcile the education system with the changing environment. A leader who empathizes with the followers’ situation and is able to make it up to them, that is a leader who is proud to see others excel as a result of the leadership tactics. Hawkins (2009) reports that there is a demand for new community college leaders as the elder ones retire, but the issue of contention is, how well are these new leaders prepared for the task of quality leadership (Moore & Berry, 2010).Although servant-leadership has not garnered substantial empirical evidence to showcase its utilization in educational leadership, there are existing isolated cases of servant- leadership, known to benefit the institution and therefore highly regarded. Richardson (2008) records an interview that reflects a servant-leader. Lisa Harrold, an emerging leader in Steger Sch ool District indiscriminately engages both teachers and students towards attaining their goals. Teachers are provided for all the requirements needed to help students achieve their goals at high levels despite the students’ weaknesses.Crippen (2005b. ) points on the changed leadership style in University of Manitoba. Servant-leadership as indicated by the author can enable schools attain democratization which many schools are adopting. Crippen (2005a, b. ) recommends that schools incorporate servant-leadership through first, reading, discussing and analyzing Greenleaf’s concept of a servant-leader. Secondly, those schools can incorporate the ten qualities of servant-leadership in the development of the school plans. Importantly, the society should be considered in the leadership and development programs of schools.SanFacon and Spears (2010) are proprietors who value servant-leadership. In their work, they describe, three domineering components of servant-leadership; fi rst, the motive behind the leadership process (what is the intention of serving people? ). Second, they state that servant- leadership is defined by the means of achieving the intentions, and third; servant-leadership focuses on the end (that is, the outcome of the leadership process). Changes bring the desire to change leadership styles in the organizations depending on the prevailing circumstance.Globalization and general advancement in knowledge and technology require that educational systems impart students with skills and knowledge that will enable them suit in the current society and meet its needs. Greenleaf’s model of servant-leadership is believed to include the necessities that higher education facilities require to educate the future generation. However, schools have been known to literally propose servant-leadership for their organizations but never practice it in reality. Servant-leadership is based on moral authority, and unlike transactional leadership, servant -leadership warrants a proactive rather than a control leader.Servant-leadership is based first on serving others before self, unlike in transformational leadership. Teachers who are servants are highly regarded because of the transformation of their quality work to their students and the society at large. Changes are taking place, and the old generation of teachers is going into retire. The society is at risk of losing virtuous leaders if servant-leadership is not embraced in reality in the school curricular. There is a wake up call for school leaders to stimulate the innate leadership qualities in teachers and students.The ten qualities of servant-leadership were described to be innate in all individuals by Greenleaf. Further research should focus on determining the quantity of these innate values in the population. References Bowman, R. (2005, July). â€Å"Teacher as servant-leader. † Clearing House, Vol. 78 (6); 257-259. Boyum, G. (2008). The historical and philosophical influences on Greenleaf’s concept of servant- leadership: Setting the stage for theory building. University of Minnesota. Cassel, J. & Holt, T. (2008). â€Å"The servant-leader: Mature and thoughtful board members work for the common good-not for individual gain.† American School Board Journal. Crippen, C. (2005a. ). â€Å"Inclusive education: A servant-leadership perspective. † Educational Canada, Vol, 45(4); 19-22. Crippen, C. (2005b. ). â€Å"The democratic school: First to serve, then to lead. † Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, Vol, 1(47); 1-17. Ellet, F. (2010). â€Å"Leaders in education: Intellectual self portraits. † Ed. Leonard, Waks. Stud Philos Educ, Vol, 29: 315-320. Hawkins, C. (2009). Leadership theories-managing practices, challenges, suggestions. Michigan: The Community College Enterprise. Herman, D.& Marlowe, M. (2005). â€Å"Modeling meaning in life: The teacher as servant leader. † Reclaiming Chil dren & Youth, Vol. 14(3); 175-178. Moore, R. & Berry, B. (2010). â€Å"The teachers of 2030. How will the teaching profession change in the next 20 years? † Educational Leadership; 36-40 Negro, M. (2010). â€Å"Campaign leadership: New heights for summit. † Currents, Vol, 36(5); 49. Normore, A. (2010). â€Å"Michael Fullan and Geoff Scott, turnaround leadership for Higher Education. † Higher Education, Vol, 59(6); 801-803 Richardson, J. (2008). â€Å"Emerging leader engages students, teachers.† Phi Delta Kappan intenational. SanFacon, G. & Spears, L. (2010). â€Å"Servant-leaders: Embody motive, means and ends. † Leadership Excellence. Michigan: Executive Excellence Publishing. Silva, E. (2010, May). â€Å"Rebuilt it and they will come. † Educational Leadership, Vol, 2: 60- 64 Shugart, S. (1999). A brief philosophy of community college leadership. Florida: Valencia Community College. Thomas, A. & Wohlstetter, P. (2010). Six keys to success: Districts attempting urban reforms can learn from these strategies that work. † American Sch

Monday, September 16, 2019

Personeel Management chapter

Working Individually or in groups, Identify the factors for a successful Incentive plan. For an Incentive plan to succeed, employees must have some desire for the plan. This desire can be influenced in part by how successful management is in introducing plan and convincing employees of its benefits. Encouraging employees to participate In developing and administering the plan is likely to increase their willingness accept It.Compensation specialists also note the following as heartsickness of a successful incentive plan: Financial incentives are linked to valued behavior, the incentive program seems fair to employees, productivity/quality standards are challenging but achievable, and payout formulas are simple and understandable. 2; Contrast the differences between straight piecework, differential piece rate, and standard hour plans. Explain where each plan might best be used. Straight Piecework: One of the oldest incentive plans is based on piecework.Under straight piecework, employ ees receive a certain rate for each unit produced. Their insemination is determined by the number of units they produce during a pay period. At Staircase, an office furniture maker, employees can earn more than their base pay, often as much as 35 percent more, through piecework for each slab of metal they cut or chair they upholster. Under a differential piece rate, employees whose production exceeds the standard output receive a higher rate for all of their work than the rate paid to those who do not exceed the standard.Computing price rate: Although time standards establish the time required to perform a given amount f work, they do not by themselves determine what the incentive rate should be. The incentive rates must be based on hourly wage rates that would otherwise be paid for the type of work being performed. (standard time per unit) (Hourly rate) (units per hour) (Minutes per hour) = units per hour = per unit Standard hour plan: Another common incentive technique is the stan dard hour plan, which sets incentive rates on the basis of a predetermined â€Å"standard time† for completing a Job.If employees finish the work In less than the expected time, their pay Is still based on the standard time for the Job multiplied by their hourly rate. For example, if the standard time to install an engine in a half-ton truck is five hours and 1 OFF mechanic's hourly rate times five hours. Standard hour plans are particularly suited to long-cycle operations or Jobs or tasks that are non-repetitive and require a variety of skills. 3; A frequently heard complaint about merit raises is that they do little to increase employee effort.What are the causes of this belief? Suggest ways in which the motivating value of merit raises may be increased. No easy solutions to these problems, organizations using a true merit pay plan often base the percentage pay ease on merit guidelines tied to performance appraisals. For example, Highlights in HARM 3 illustrates a guideline chart for awarding merit raises. The percentages may change each year, depending on various internal or external concerns such as profit levels or national economic conditions as indicated by changes in the consumer price index.Under the illustrated merit plan, to prevent all employees from being rated outstanding or above average, managers may be required to distribute the performance rating according to some pre-established formula (such as only 10 percent can be rated outstanding). Additionally, when setting merit percentage guidelines, organizations should consider individual performance along with such factors as training, experience, and current earnings. 4; what are the reasons behind the different payment methods for sales employees?The reason behind different payment methods for sales employees is that not every company shares exactly the same standards of measuring sales performance. From my point of view, the best method would be the combined salary and commission plan a nd it will be also the most useful. As its name says, it is made by two different plans, combined salary and omission plan, this obviously represents an advantage. It also offers some flexibility, allowing to the employees to receive bonuses and commission to certain sales periods. With this extra compensation, employees will keep their work up in order to get bonuses and incentives. ; Because of competitive forces within your industry, you have decided to implement a profit-sharing plan for your employees. Discuss the advantages of profit sharing and identify specific characteristics that will assure success for your plan. Profit-sharing plans differ in the proportion of profits shared with employees and in the distribution and form of payment. The amount shared with employees may range from 5 to 50 percent of the net profit. In most plans, however, about 20 to 25 percent of the net profit is shared.Profit distributions may be made to all employees on an equal basis, or they may be based on regular salaries or some formula that takes into account seniority and/or merit. The payments may be disbursed in cash, deferred, or made on the basis of combining the two forms of payments. 7; what are some of the reasons for the rapid growth of Seeps? Cite some of the potential problems concerning their use. The first advantage is that Seeps increase inconsiderable tax benefits and tax incentives; it also helps a lot in the retirement benefits for the workers avoiding taxation cuts.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Lowering the Drinking Age to 18

It’s your 18th birthday and your finally a legal adult. Immediately you can smoke cigarettes, vote, be a jury member, even join the military and fight for your country. But don’t think about a having a beer at your going away party the night before you depart for the Middle East. No, you will have to wait until your 21. As an American citizens we are given many responsibilities at the age of 18. One of them not being the ability to consume alcohol. So I believe that at the age of 18 should come the responsibility of legally partaking of alcohol. If we are considered adults and expected to act like one at the age of 18, it isn’t right to restrict us to a drinking age of 21. At 18 you can get married, vote, pay taxes, take out loans or risk your life as a member of the U. S. military. But the law in our country says that no alcoholic beverages may be sold to anyone until the age of 21. Who says that 21 is the magical age that makes one intelligent and mature enough to consume alcohol. Sure some adults abuse alcohol and some teenagers would be able to drink responsibly. While 21 may be the legal drinking age in the U. S. no scientific evidence exists proving this is the age at which young people can safely begin drinking alcohol. (Bryan Knowles). By lowering the drinking age it would take away some of the temptation involved with alcohol. It’s not as much fun when its allowed! The most common reason for underage drinking is because alcohol is seen as â€Å"the forbidden fruit. In a study by Dr. Engs, professor of applied health and science, found that by increasing the legal drinking age, young people tend to abuse alcohol more. In actuality raising the drinking age was much worse than doing nothing. Drinking is more exciting when it is illegal. So many people go out and get drunk simply because they know that it’s illegal (Dr Engs). If we do away with this concept then we are left we people partaking in less booze filled nights. Leaving the decision of alcohol mostly to the family is the best scheme if the aim is to reduce underage drinking. We should also focus on safe drinking instead of age restrictions. Educating on the power of alcohol instead of just telling them not to drink it would create a better understanding for our young ones Other countries like France, have a much lower rate of alcohol abuse. This comes from educated and gradual drinking. American teens have not learned to drink gradually or in moderation. We need to focus on educating our young people on safe drinking and as a social activity, instead of a type of escape. Why is there still a problem if alcohol education currently exists? Because current alcohol education in high school and college teaches the following: This is how you drink responsibly, now don't drink because you are too young. How does anyone expect students to listen to a teacher when this gibberish is coming from their mouth? First you need to properly educate young adults. Second, you need trust them. If you treat young adults like children they will act like children. If you treat young adults as responsible adults they will act maturely. While most parents agree that serving alcohol to groups of minors should be prohibited, many also reserve the right to introduce their teenage children to alcohol. Supervised, moderate exposure to alcohol in the home with family lays the foundation for a healthy respect for alcohol and its associated responsibilities. Bryan Knowles) In conclusion, is 21 really the prestigious age we all can’t wait to reach. At 21, does all the maturity and intelligence we need to navigate this earth finally dawn on us! Well, our country seem to think so. So at the end of the day when you are deployed to Iraq to serve your country, don’t even think about having an adult beverage. Because you’re not an adult until 21, you must wait three more years. But look on the b right side, there will always be a beer waiting for you when you are of age.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Types of Power in a Negotiation

What are the five types of power? Referent- power that comes from admiration or respect from others subject to such power Reward- power that comes from using rewards as a way to get things accomplished Legitimate- having a title that grants power, such as CEO Expert- power that comes from having supreme knowledge of the subject Coercive – using punishment as a way to get things done Consider a negotiation with which you are familiar. What parties were identified? Who had power or influence? Explain why.I personally don't find myself negotiating through situations on a daily basis, my work environment is very fast-paced and we usually make decisions very quickly. But I can definitely see these types of power struggles in a family situation or even a marriage. Personally I know I have used the reward and coercive powers to get my kids to do things. Being a parent also gives that legitimate power, I am MOM therefore what I say goes. Based on your experience with a negotiation, ho w does having one or more of the five types of power affect the dynamics of the negotiation?I would have to say that at work our team Leader beyond having legitimate power, he also has referent and expert power. During department meetings to discuss methods to improve our efficiency we all give our feedback and go back and forth with our ideas. It is his knowledge of the company and years of experience that usually provide the most efficient approach to improving our dept. Having the respect from everyone in the department as well as other co-workers initiates the negotiation towards a productive solution.