Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Victorian Literature: Anglo-American Feminism, French Feminism

ssignment Title: ‘Compare and Assess at least two of the following approaches in feminist theory, with illustration from two of the Victorian texts you have studied: Anglo-American feminism; French Feminism; Socialist or Marxist Feminism; feminist approaches influenced by Foucault. ‘ ‘I declare that this is my own work and that I have followed the code of academic good conduct and have sought, where necessary, advice and guidance in the proper presentation of my work. ‘ Signature: Date: Compare and Assess at least two of the following approaches in feminist theory, with illustration from two of the Victorian texts you have studied: Anglo-American Feminism; French Feminism; Socialist or Marxist Feminism; Feminist Approaches influenced by Foucault. ‘ Feminist theory like psychoanalytic theory is relatively modern in its creation. The immergence of feminist literary theories can be linked to the out break of female political uprising in the early nineteenth century. The French Revolution marked the beginning of a fight for the obtaining of women's rights to power and equality in society. Elaine Showalter comments that the ideological socially acceptable view of Victorian women as a whole can be seen as ‘†¦ prescribed a woman who would be a Perfect Lady, an Angel in the House, contently submissive to men, but strong in inner purity and religiosity, queen in her own realm of the Home. (Victorian Women's Poets, Page 13) Feminist theory is segregated into separate view points of feminism as a whole; French Feminism analyses literature from a perspective of a psychoanalytic view, drawing upon the work of Lacan to highlight view points. It helps to analyse the ways in which women are positioned in society in the text and how they can be perceived to be repressed. Marxist Feminism takes its inspiration from how the women can be perceived to be oppressed in literature. American feminism analyses literature from a textual expressive view point. All feminist out looks have their issues which provide flaws into their argument. ‘To be sure, most feminist thinkers today assume that nurture, at the very least, qualifies nature. Recently, however, a number of poststructuralist theorists – deploying both male and female signatures – have claimed that there is no gendered â€Å"reality,† that the concepts of â€Å"man† and â€Å"woman† are, as some would put it, â€Å"always already† fictive since human identity is itself a tenuous, textually produced epiphenomenon. ‘ (No Man's Land. Pagexv). Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronti provided feminist critics with a canvas of a examples of marginally autobiographical Victorian gynocentrism. The production of text from a woman, looking at the emphasis placed on the female place in the history of the text, the structural placing of women and the thematic view of women in the text. Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar argue that women writers such as Emily Bronti had been trapped into the roles that society has manipulated, as they were trapped against the patriarchal view of the angel of the house. However even thought there is a desire for this view to be usurped, Bronte still curtails herself to society's expectations by debilitating and eventually killing off of the strong rebellious charcter of Catherine, emphasising her own fear of what the female form in which she was writing. Gilbert and Gubar's reading of Wuthering Heights classes it as a ‘A bible of Hell. ‘ (Gilbert, S & Gubar, S. Mad woman in the attic) The classification of Wuthering heights as a living hell is created in type by the Byronic hero of Heathcliff. Although Gilbert and Gubar look into the curtailment of women being confined to the house, trapped into submission by domesticity, Wuthering Heights provides Catherine with her own sense of control where she can break social confinements. Yet Catherine chooses to be confined by domesticity and social patriarchy by marrying Edgar Linton. Bronte does however portray the confusion Catherine feels in making her choice between what she desires and what is socially expected; You love Mr Edgar because he is handsome, and young, and cheerful, and rich and loves you. The last, however, goes for nothing – You would love him without that, probably, and with it, you wouldn't, unless he possessed the four former attractions. ‘ (Wuthering Heights, Page 119)Through the use of the second generation Cathy, Bronte allows the correction from cultural to natural choice to be made via the successful relationship between Cathy and Hareton. Kristeva comments on the text ‘presses the linguistic sign to its limits, the semiotic is fluid, plural, a kind of pleasurable creative excess over precise meaning and it takes sadistic delight in destroying or negating such signs. ‘ (Literary Theory: an introduction). The dual nature of narration in the novel serves thematic purposes, in that both provide commentary on the role of women in society. The feminist nature of the novel can be seen through Lockwood's comments on the success of Nelly's narrative story telling. Bronte manipulates the Victorian view that women have innate frailty and makes a parody out if the view by portraying Catherine's illness as a strength in which she is manipulating those around her through Nelly's perception; ‘I wasted no condolences on miss, nor any expostulations on my mistress, not did I pay attention to the sighs of my master, who yearned to hear his lady's name, since he might not hear her voice. ‘ (Wuthering Heights, Page 158) Catherine's subsequent illness shows itself in the form of a disillusioned madness. Bronte's use of this madness is to offer clarity to the social structure that the very cultural expectations of Catherine are the things that cause the feared wild nature to develop; ‘This feather was picked up from the heath, the bird was shot – we saw its nest in the winter, full of little skeletons. Heathcliff set a trap over it, and the old ones dare not come. I made him promise he'd never shoot a lapwing, after that, and he didn't. Yes, here are more! Did he shoot my lapwings, Nelly? Are they red, any of them? Let me look. (Wuthering Heights, Page 160) Gilbert and Gubar view Catherine's imprisonment in Thrushcross Grange as the reason for her being trapped into a feminine madness; ‘Imprisonment leads to madness, solipsism, paralysis †¦ Starvation – both in the modern sense of malnutrition and the archaic Miltonic sense of freezing (‘to starve in ice') – leads to weakness, immobility and death. (Rylance, Page 253) Catherine's embracing of Victorian societal views that kept her from being with Heathcliff. Included in these views are the expectations of women. It is important to note because the awareness of social standing and gender in this example prevent true love prevailing. Bronte also argues that Catherine's inability to resist social ambition is reflective of the oppressive power of the social structure of the Victorian society. Bronte feminises Lockwood by giving him the typically female characteristic of frailty, according to Beth Newman ‘Lockwood's supine passivity (he is bed ridden during most of her narrative) suggests that he is in the â€Å"feminine† position with respect to Nelly's controlling gaze. (Gender, Narration and Gaze in Wuthering Heights, Page 1034). Emily Bronte portrays Hareton as a model man who does not fear women but does not repress them either, this is marked through his not hiding away from Cathy's advances; â€Å"Helene Cixous has written that the Medusa who has terrorized the male subject, looked at â€Å"straight on,† is actually â€Å"beautiful†¦ and †¦ Laughing† Bronte has uncannily anticipated Cixous's analysis of the masculine fear of the woman's gaze in suggesting that Hareton, alone among the male characters in the novel, is able to laugh back. (Gender, Narration and Gaze in Wuthering Heights, Page 1037). The splitting and fragmentation of Catherine's feminine desire through the lack of a stable identity, she is Catherine Earnshaw, Catherine Heathcliff and Catherine Linton at the same time. The theme of heaven and hell is prevalent most through Heath cliff's representation as a satanic wild figure that should be feared. Bronte links Heathcliff to the wildness of nature through his name; he becomes one with the heath surrounding the heights. Catherine expresses her own desire to be associated with Heathcliff through â€Å"If I were in Heaven, Nelly, I should be extremely miserable. ‘ ‘Because you are not fit to go there,' I answered. ‘All sinners would be miserable in heaven. ‘†¦ ‘I was only going to say that heaven did not seem to be my home; and it broke my heart with weeping to come back to earth; and the angels were so angry that they flung me out, into the middle of the heath on the top of Wuthering Heights, where I woke sobbing for joy. ‘ (Wuthering Heights, Page 121) Bronte uses the binary opposition to emphasise Catherine's ideal of Heaven being Heathcliff. Yet due to the confinement of social expectation Catherine turns her back on Heaven and places herself in the Hell that is Thrushcross Grange causing a fragmented version of herself to become her existence. Kristeva comments on Wuthering Heights lack of ability to have a simplistic narrative form, there is a use of multiple genres to create the complex binary oppositions. The use of the re-emergence of the choice between patriarchy and desire through Cathy has the object of; ‘articulating the mother-child relation as a site for both affirm the archaic force of the pre-oedipal, which although repressed is thus also preserved. Both affirm the fluid, polymorphous perverse status of libidinal drives and both evoke a series of sites of bodily pleasure capable of resisting the demands of the symbolic order. ‘ (Jacques Lacan; A feminist Introduction, Page 149) ‘Thus, although Wuthering Heights ends in cosy domesticity, the gaps in its enunciation express a feminist resistance to the patriarchal order in which its story partially acquiesces: for the narrative undercuts the condition of its own telling even while implicating them in specular economy that fetishizes and appropriates women. ‘ (Gender, Narration and Gaze in Wuthering Heights, Page 1039) Christina Rossetti's Goblin Market expresses the frustrations from enforced female passivity, articulating bitterness about being the second sex, and the limitations on female potential; this is evident through out the poem, culminating as two women become what Victorian patriarchy predetermines, wives and mothers. Goblin Market shows women in social relations, in market economies in literary history and women in sexual economics. Elizabeth Helsinger explains that Goblin Market is ‘A feminist utopia based on sisterhood against male domination and ‘the male' market or a legitimating of separate spheres? Victorian studies, 1991). Goblin Market allows Rossetti the opportunity to escape the archaic patriarchy and create a fantasy realm. Rossetti allows Lizzie and Laura an insight into the male commodities of male utopia that is the market place, and how to successfully regain equal control. ‘This is a morally nonsense poem, which puts religious myth and sexual temptation into a market economy which is endlessly unstable. ‘ (Victorian Women's Poets, Page 138). Rossetti's creation of sisterly solidarity gives a feminine outlook; ‘Hug me, kiss me, suck my juices Squeezed from goblin fruits for you, Goblin pulp and Goblin Dew. Eat me, drink me, love me; For your sake I have braved the glen And had to do with goblin merchant men. ‘ (A Choice of Christina Rossetti's verse, Page 16). ‘The sexual suggestiveness of ‘Goblin Market' has undoubtedly made it a compelling work for feminist readers concerned with what constitutes a distinctly female imagination. ‘ (‘A Music of Thine own. ‘ Victorian Womens Poets, Page 50). â€Å"Goblin Market', the title poem of Christina Rossetti's first volume, is the questioning feminine discourse it masks. ‘ (‘A Music of Thine own': Womens Poetry. Victorian Womens Poets, Page 49) Rossetti's representation of sexuality is not in the names or images she finds but in the structure of the whole poem with its repeated tasting. ‘ (‘A Music of Thine own': Womens Poetry. Victorian Womens Poets, Page 49) In many respects Goblin Market is directly contradictory to many nineteenth century views about the role of the woman poet. Mary Ann Stoddart, 1842, defines the sphere of the poetess as: â€Å"All that is beautiful in form, delicate in sentiment, graceful in action will form the peculiar province of the gentle powers of women†. Goblin Market can be said to have none of these qualities. This metrical indulgence, gives Goblin Market a sensual art for art's sake, which is usually reserved for male poets, making this offering to the public by a poetess incompatible with Victorian notions of female poetic beauty Laura performs a familiar role in literary history – that of the fallen Eve. She relinquishes herself to the sexual temptation offered by the evil goblin men. Her sin is compounded by prostitution in selling a lock of her hair in return for the fruits. This can be viewed as an act of rape; the goblins cut her hair for payment, when, at the time, a woman's hair was a somewhat sacred thing. The fallen woman is a common figure in literature, however, because she comes from the creative mind of a female poet the representation comes to have a few problems in its interpretation. Yet still, Laura receives her salvation, from her sin of eating the fruit, through the self-sacrificing actions of her sister. Lizzie plays the male role of redemption. While Rossetti can be viewed in opposition to the Victorian ideals of female creativity, there is an inherent conservatism in her work that creates problems with the idea of her being a truly radical or feminist writer. Unlike the other Pre-Raphaelite poets, Rossetti does not embrace atheism, but rather adheres to a strict Anglo-Catholic faith â€Å"Goblin Market' is Christina Rossetti's most remarkable long poem. She was also a writer of consummate lyrics. What can be called the feminine discourse which respondes to the aesthetics of expression and repression overflow and barrier, in ‘Goblin Market', is also at work in her short poems. ‘ (‘A music of thine own':Womens Poetry, Victorian Womens Poets, Page 54). Through both of the texts analyzed it is important to notice that as Showalter states that it is in fact, â€Å"female imagination' cannot be treated by literary historians as a romantic or Freudian abstraction. It is the product of a delicate network of influences operating in a time, and it must be analyzed as it expresses itself, in language and in a fixed arrangement of words on a page, a form that itself is subject to a network of influences and conventions, including the operations of the marketplace. ‘ (Victorian Women's Poets, Page 12) Both Emily Bronte and Christina Rossetti were classed as typically romantic Victorian women's writers. However this view is highly problematic as both women try to break the curtailments of Victorian archaic patriarchy in their work, constantly testing and pushing the boundaries of female authorship; ‘Romance fiction deals above all with the doubts and delights of heterosexuality, an institution which feminism has seen as problematic from the start. In thinking about this ‘problem' I myself have found the psychoanalytic framework most useful since it suggests that the acquisition of gendered subjectivity is a process, a movement towards the social ‘self' , fraught with conflicts and never fully achieved. Moreover, psychoanalysis takes the question of pleasure seriously, both in its relation to gender and in its understanding of fictions as fantasies, as the explorations and productions of desires which may be excess of the socially possible or acceptable. It gives us ways into the discussion of popular culture which can avoid the traps of moralism or dictatorship. ‘ (Romance Fiction, Female sexuality and class. Page 142)

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Essay Football vs Rugby

Ricardo Pardey ID 596397911 Second Essay February 15, 2013 Football Vs. Rugby When I was a senior in high school, I played on my school’s rugby team. It was really excite and funny while I played almost all weekend even though it is not popular in Colombia. But then when I came to the United States, it catch my attention that everybody likes and watches Football and it made me contrast these two aggressive sports Rugby and Football. These two sports are almost the same, for example the object of both games is score points by carrying the ball beyond the possessive touchline and the ball has a prolonged spheroid shape.Even though they are similar in some aspects, the first big difference is related with the source. Rugby proceeds from England and Football from the USA. Because of their foundation, many small differences have been created that show the importance of the characteristics of the society and their impact on sports. First started with Football, this sport was created in the United State, which impacted the characteristics of the game. The major league of this sport is called the National Football League (NFL), and the major tournament is the Super Bowl.The rules of the game are; the game is formed by four 15-minute quarters with a half-time intermission, which shows that in the American mindset, it is better a lot of short times than a few very long halves. The field must had 120 yards long by 53. 3 yards wide, based on the measuring system used there. The ball is a prolonged spheroid, which is about 11 inches long and 22 inches in circumference and it, weight around 0. 875 lbs, to make the balloon aerodynamic so that it can travel longs distances. Each competitor must use helmets and padding during the game.The name of the things change, for example when you made a goal in Rugby it is called Try and in Football, touch down. Showing that the team can make unlimited substitution in each game but always having 11 players on the field, showing tha t in America the people believe that when anything stop working a hundred percent, it must be replaced by new ones One of the huge differences between Rugby and Football is that the number of substitutions that can be done by the coach in each game thanks to English cultural influence is 7.The other high-contact sport is Rugby, which was created in England. The major Tournament is the World Cup (Rugby Union) and the most known League is the Super 15; but there are a lot of leagues all over the world, among them are Aviva Prem, top 14, and in an international level NSW suburb rugby; Showing that the people play this sport all over the world not like Football, which is played only in a part of North America. The rules of this sport state that the ball must have the international 5 size, that means 27 cm long and 60 cm in circumference with a weigh around 1lb.The fields have 120 meters long by 70 meters wide according to the metric system. On the field there must be situated only 15 pl ayers. They play two halves of 40 minutes with a ten-minute half time. The additional difference is the size of the player, as they don’t use helmets or any other equipment except a mouth guard. They have wider backs, being the thinnest player just 81kg and the heaviest 201. 7kg. The name of a goal is Trying and after made a point one player kicks the ball between the goal posts to win more points.After seeing the specific characteristic of both sport and the reason why they have these differences, to summarize, Rugby and American Football are two sports with intense physical aggression and the same goal: carrying the ball beyond the opponents touch line and kicking the ball between the goal post after they make the point. Even though they are parallel in some aspects; there are differences based on the source, such as the size of the ball, the field and the players, the length of the game and the number of substitutions permitted per team.In my personal experience, the place where the sport is created has a huge relation with the characteristics of the game. Because for example as football was created in the US the people over there like it because it is according to their characteristics; however, in the opposite side if a sport was created in a different country and the people want to play it, they will face some things can be consider whether not loved and strange, since recreation with Rugby in Colombia is not popular.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Media and the Family Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Media and the Family - Essay Example Perfection is unattainable, unrealistic, and potentially dull and sterile."1 In a dysfunctional family, however, "some parents under-function, leaving their children to fend for themselves. Other parents over-function, never allowing their children to grow up and be on their own. Others are inconsistent or violate basic boundaries of appropriate behavior."2 A number of factors may directly or indirectly affect the functioning of each member or the family as a whole. Parenting styles may be considered a direct factor. One of the factors indirectly affecting its stability and the functioning of its members, on the other hand, is the television. This is based from the fact that among the habitual activities that draw members of the family together is spending time watching the television. Such occur when the perception of the art becomes a perception of the reality. Hence, television is usually secondary to other activities, affecting other activities and vice versa. Especially, nowadays that reality shows such as the "Big Brother" has invaded the TV screens where a dramatic increase of surveillance is present. The Big Brother Show showcases individuals from different localities who are chosen to live in a big house (that of Big Brother). Everything that they do is, in effect, seen on public TV. This is what Yevgeny Zamyatin (2005)3 calls surveillance in the media. Increase in surveillance in the twentieth-century has also been matched by an increase of voyeuristic entertainment, exemplified by the Orwellian titled television game show Big Brother. The entertainment value of voyeuristic surveillance has arguably rendered individuals more accepting of regulatory surveillance in their personal lives. This trend towards increasing surveillance coupled with a citizenry inured to a constant invasion of its privacy has formed the basis for a number of twentieth-century dystopian novels and films. According to Focus on the Family, "television viewing has grown steadily since the first sets were introduced in the late 1920s. American kids aged 2-18 now spend an average of 5:29 hours using media each day, with the lion's share of that attributed to TV.4 This is primarily caused by the number of changes that occurred since the first television sets were developed in the 1920s. The wobbly 24-line picture screens produced by early technology have evolved into today's high-definition TVs with nearly flawless picture quality. And there has never been more programming options available than today, thanks to cable and satellite receivers. Advances in technology opened more avenues for life as reflected on TV be made available to a larger and more complex viewers. Studies show extensive viewing may be to blame for aggressive or violent behavior, poor academic performance, precocious sexuality, obesity and substance abuse." 5 FOCUS This paper aims to establish that though the immense detrimental effects of television is undeniable, a responsible viewers' attitude such as guiding young audience specially when signs of these undesirable effects are present in shows being viewed, may in effect enhance the mental ability of the young viewer by making him more critical of the implications of what is portrayed on TV how he should respond to such manifestations. Such action should,

Sunday, July 28, 2019

American Exceptionalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

American Exceptionalism - Essay Example Throughout the history, American political leaders have been "relatively autonomous" from political pressures and are able to use their autonomy to solve problems confronting the state. During the Cold War, the international policy challenged Truman administration and national security planners. In the early Cold War period was the problematic nature of life in the "atomic age," which explicitly connected public with national security policy. The battle against the Soviet Union and communism marked a new period in American political agenda. In contrast to other states, the USA followed exceptionalist policies based on the idea of the American way of life and liberty. During this period of time, America joined anti-internationalist streak and opposed participation in international institutions. These international relations led to changes on the national level. Parliamentary systems of government abound elsewhere in the world and can be divided into various categories; no other advanced industrialized democracy has emulated the American system. American institutions are exceptional. The battle against communism and anti-internationalist streak caused new worldviews help by most Americans. ... Americans expect less of government in services, particularly in the provision of social welfare, than do citizens of zither democracies; they strongly support civil liberties such as freedom of the press; and they are of course strongly in favor of a democratic form of government. Chief among the political traditions that have been strong elsewhere but almost absent from American politics has been social democracy. The United States is unique among industrialized democracies in never having had a social democratic movement with a strong popular following. After the Cold war, Americans continued their international expansion and were involved in the Gild War. Nuclear weapons revolutionized how the U.S. military was actually used, in, for example, Korea, Vietnam, or the Gulf War (Spanos 89).The argument here is first an existential claim that nuclear weapons changed the way Americans understood its place in a world. Truman administration planners charged with managing postwar national security policy did conceive of nuclear weapons as revolutionary in the sense that they believed doctrinal changes tied to the integration of nuclear weapons into the armed forces did have consequences for the state and society. The Vietnam War and the Gulf war changed national values and traditions of the nation. Exceptionalism was codified in the Weinberger Doctrine (1984) and the Powell Doctrine (1990=1991). A new period in international politics was marked by new international policies introduced by Bill Clinton. The politics of exceptionalism was embodied in Clinton's politics of enlargement and engagement, his vision of Iraqi leader and nuclear weapon (Ignatieff 94). Both Congress and the media (the presidency much less so) have

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The prevention of perioperative infection in elderly patients Essay

The prevention of perioperative infection in elderly patients - Essay Example 27). The United States reports perioperative infection caused deaths at 97,000 per year (Schneider, 2006). The Institute of Medicine qualified those results further, estimating that between 44,000 and 98,000 of those reported deaths occurred as a direct result of medical errors (Watson, 2006, p. 22). Even in England, amidst our own medical facilities where our own health care professionals practise stringent infection control, these preventable infections occur far too often. Recently, Britain's most senior doctor, Sir Liam Donaldson, reported death risk due to medical error at 1 in 300 (Hall). This includes patients having contracted infections within the hospital settings. "Between 5% and 10% of patients admitted to modern hospitals in the developed world acquire one or more infections, with at least 5,000 deaths directly attributed to healthcare-acquired infections in England each year" (Hall, 2006). Older people are a specific demographic at risk for perioperative infections due to their higher incidence of diabetes and hypertension, and their immunological systems particularly susceptible to the adverse affects of prolonged smoking and obesity. While caring for elderly patients and assessing their likelihood at incurring surgery-related infections, there are a number of risk factors that should be assessed. Infection control entails hospital procedures both prior to surgery and utilisation of infection control programmes throughout surgery. There are also specific practises for complex procedures maintained in orthopaedics and cardiothoracic surgeries by Multi Disciplinary Teams. All hospital personnel must take care to follow infection control procedures and be aware of avenues and risk factors for infections, in order that older patients are cared for effectively and their infections prevented. Risk factors in older people Older people are more at risk from infection during hospitalisation due to their oftentimes immunological compromised status. Immunological debility in elderly patients arises in a variety of settings for multiple reasons. It has been shown that arriving to surgery from elderly health-care facilities is a significant indicator of perioperative and postoperative infection (Lee, 2006). This is logical due to the very fact that health-care facilities house the most compromised patients in the older persons demographic. To explain this further, it is certain that patients with diabetes, overweight patients, and obese patients have an increased risk of infection (Preventing, 2006). Likewise, poor nutrition and lack of activity cause patients to be immunocompromised. But it is not only older patients in health care facilities that warrant attention from the health industry. Studies show than anyone above 60 year of age may be at a higher risk of perioperative infection (Pugliese, 2005). The National Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Deaths (NCEPOD) maintains a practise of reviewing data reported on specific demographic groups each year. The NCEPOD's work is the collection of information on patients who die within 30 days of a surgical procedure (Kmietowicz, 1999, p. 1324). Due to the seemingly unnecessary incidence of death among the aging demographic, the 1999 report specified more care for the elderly. This prudent step seems

Friday, July 26, 2019

The Promised Land Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Promised Land - Essay Example Deuteronomistic history reflects about Lord’s blessings and prosperity of the covenant on obeying laws and the Lord’s instructions; whereas, covenant is cursed by the Lord, if being defiant and deciphering apostasy. On the whole, the components of Deuteronomistic history emphasize the theology that explains the principles following which humans can gain boons and blessings from God and deciphering non-abidance to the God become liable for His curse (Tanner, â€Å"The Deuteronomistic History†). Deuteronomistic history is theologically said to be the book of ‘heart and instructions’ rather than a narration of laws. This book provides a spiritual insight about the life that an individual needs to live by following God’s directed ways, with firm beliefs in order to get His love and blessings. The most important feature of this particular book is the ‘Homiletical Style’. In this context, the book revolves around the covenants’ c ultural way of expressing relationship between the God and His people. Thus, it can be mentioned that the book develops the idea that a covenant receives blessings by complying with God’s instructions being obedient and truthful, while receives curse and death by disobeying God’s faith and laws (Tanner, â€Å"The Deuteronomistic History†). 2. Compare and Contrast the Three Models of the Conquest: In Deuteronomy, the ‘book of Joshua’ signifies about the three different models applied by Israelites in conquering the ‘land of Canaan’. The origin of Israel in the Canaan was accomplished by implementing influential conquering models, viz. Conquest, Immigration and Revolt model. The immigration model signifies the findings of the German scholars who developed a model of conquest that was different from surface reading of the ‘book of Joshua’. This model also argued that geography has substantial implications on the events occurri ng within a region, as was the case in Israel. The immigration model further proposes that the Israelites first conquered the highlands and then extended their conquest over the plains. Biblical accounts in accordance with the conquest model further reflected that the initial phase of Israelites’ conquest was Trans-Jordan before they crossed the river. The biblical evidences of the conquest model relate a sharp contrast with the perception of Immigration model in this context, where motives are rendered primary significance as the stimulator of events registered in the then period. Unlike the immigration and the conquest model, the revolt model of conquest discusses about Israel’s social revolution within Canaan as her initial origin of conquest, which contrasts the view presented in the other two models (Newberry and Hasan, â€Å"Joshua: The Conquest of Canaan†). 3. Describe the Theologically Correct Ideals of the Ban and the Holy War in Deut.20:1-18 and In Jos h.6:1-27: Deuteronomy 20:1-18 mainly discusses about war. In this context, it has been mentioned that God prepares His covenants, i.e. Israelites, to fight against their enemies and also supports throughout by giving His blessings to victory. This war has been termed as ‘The Holy War’, the reason being the God himself is going with the warriors to fight against the enemy clan and to impart victory to the Israelites. Furthermore,

Childlink Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Childlink - Essay Example Yet, sometime despite our best efforts, children and even the parents fall further into social problems with crime, substance abuse, and destructive behavior. This creates questions of how to moderate social crisis in families, and relates to the professional development of my career in counseling and social work. Findings, or discussion: The basis for most foster care placements are deterioration of the family structure through crime, substance abuse, domestic violence, and poverty as they combine to create a situation where a child may be taken from his or her birth family to a safer environment under the auspices of Child Protection Services, a court order, or a recommendation from social welfare. The psychological effects of these family traumas may affect all involved in a profound, life-changing manner, hurting the children the worst in learning how to process emotions born out of abusive or abnormal patterns of family behavior. Because of this, I decided to do a literature rev iew of academic sources in psychology and sociology relating to the foster care experience as it is reported from all of the different perspectives in the relationship, including: the child, the birth family, the foster family, the counselor, social services, and the legal or judicial aspects of the process. In reading the academic literature related to psychology, for example, I became interested in child development stages and also the patterns or reactions of the children as they developed through different responses to the alienating situation. I began to realize that some of the children naturally reacted passively to the situation, and that they were apt to close up emotionally more often when confronted with confusion or emotionally charged situations. Conversely, others were always active and aggressive and more apt to resist violently or irrationally when confronted with conflict. The recognitions of patterns of introversion and extroversion led me to the conclusion that di fferent approaches should be prepared in advance to address the needs of the children uniquely, for example introducing activities to calm or moderate the behavior of the active children while attempting to stimulate a more positive response from the withdrawn children. I feel that further research on this topic can lead to a better understanding of what a counselor needs to do in order to recognize signs in individuals and introduce treatment through unique diagnosis of the psychological issues and personality types underlying the individual cases. The same approach can also be taken with regard to family members who are displaying outward signs of substance abuse, or alcoholism. These two combined are the usual gateway to family destruction, especially when intersecting with the prison justice system. The roots of substance abuse in theory are important to academic research for my work at Childlink and also for further progress in the field of social work and counseling. Substance abuse and alcoholism are the most common problems that lead to the further domestic violence, criminal behavior, and deterioration of the family structure that tragically results in foster care. The question of treatment and recovery for those suffering from long term or chronic alcoholism and drug abuse is an important part of my research at Childlink, as they relate as a key cause to the social and personal breakdowns that create the family

Thursday, July 25, 2019

How to Build a New World Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

How to Build a New World - Assignment Example b. Individualism: is a phenomenon that encourages freedom, though at the cost of ties of the family, together with social cohesion. This act usually stresses the initiative of certain individual. In the context, it is worth to note that Klein explains that there is need to embrace freedom, even if it will be at the expensive of certain individuals or firms. c. Socialism: on the other hand, socialism entails a collective ownership. Klein brings out this point clearly by affirming that everyone has a collective responsibility in ensuring the best is achieved for the benefit of the whole family. d. Capitalism: this is a political and economic system where private owners, all in the name of gaining profits, usually control a country’s industry and trade. According to Klein, she points that Harper, forms a figure that represents someone who is Capitalist. According to her, social communities have a difficult in organizing because the secret behind how the organization lost its control is not vivid. Second, those who were supposed to defend the whole community are fighting to gain personal benefit. And third, lack schools; have also participated in this, since people do not have knowledge concerning their rights. 4. Klein claims society needs to "invest in education---education about the ideological and structural reasons why we have ended up where we are." What structures does she refer to? How might education reveal these structures so that, as Klein continues to say, a new world stands on a solid foundation? She refers to the structure of governance, where it favors leaders only. She admits that coalitions being in a top-down agreement will not in any way benefit the whole society. The change should emerge from down to top, with all members engaging in the change. According to the passage, I think that Kleins’ tone is sympathy. Here, she is sympathizing with what is going on, for example she says â€Å"We need you to be our fixed

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Final exam essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Final exam - Essay Example To avoid consequences, we make an agreement with other people in the society by denouncing the unacceptable ways and practice doing the acceptable things. Contract theory lays emphasis on the need for justice in the society. For a peaceful coexistence and satisfaction of basic needs people should seek to have a contract where they exchange goods and services. John Locke had the view that the ethical pre-political state of the society is assured by a divinely ordered natural commandment. John Rawls’ Theory of Justice argued that a group of rational and unbiased individuals will create a beneficial principle of justice as the basis for regulation of all duties, power, rights, and wealth. Social contract theory plays the role of setting up rules that govern behaviors that are acceptable by all people in the society. Contract theory creates an orderly society and enhances cooperation in the production of social goods (Gauthier1990). For this to be possible everyone in the society should be involved in the contract. This will ensure that the life and property of the people in the society has been protected. Contract theory aims at removing the notion of utilitarianism or self-interest. It argues that people follow the set rules for the advantage of the society as a whole. Contract theory has been applied by the Government in the form of a constitution. A constitution is a list of things that serve the society to enhance orderliness. The laws in the constitution are amended to accommodate the needs of the individuals in the society. I believe that the constitution ensures that politicians who refer themselves as public servants though they mostly follow their self-interests. The purpose of the constitution is to keep the politicians in check. The constitution bars the politicians from overusing their powers (Gauthier 1990). The success of the Contract theory has been widespread and this has attracted critics as well. Feminists and race conscious philosophers have

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The Value of Art in Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5250 words

The Value of Art in Education - Essay Example â€Å"Awareness of cultural heritage is seen as essential for understanding human experience and establishing a cultural identity† (Rusanen et al., 2011, p. 245). In Brindisi visual arts was used to help children express their thoughts and define their identity. In Barcelona children from different cultures were able to communicate and bridge their differences through visual narratives (Rusanen et al. 2011). As the author states, â€Å"Children receive cultural education based on the belief that its inclusion in the curriculum ensures social equity and that the arts can display and challenge social ideals and exemplify social constructions of the self as a performer within a cultural context â€Å" (Rusane et al., 2011, p. 245). The analysis of the projects in Portuguese revealed that artistic activities build vision; they increase motivation and enjoyment toward learning. Arts projects help students be actively involved in their own development (Rusanen et al., 2011). †Å"Meaningful activities should be understood to include children’s opinions, ideas and creative solutions that address the conditions of their lives† (Rusanen et al., 2011, p. 262). Educators are expose students to learning activities in the belief that this that enhances their social and cultural development, although as these examples show, the emphasis can vary from one location to another, depending on the values and issues that are judged to be relevant to local conditions. In India arts education has been recognized as formal from the 1798s. Indian people believe that arts education develops character, shapes critical thinking skills, and establishes aesthetic judgment (Kantawala, 2012). In Botswana the integration of arts... This paper approves Arts education is essential for the development of people’s philosophy; it enhances learners’ psychological, ethical, and spiritual growth. However, history shows that arts and cultural programs have always been treated as subjects of secondary importance. Over time the role of arts has been downgraded because of different barriers existing in education system. According to the paper learning music and dance strengthens students’ relationship development and establishes an environment of mutual understanding, care, and intimacy. Learning within a community allows individual students gain information about each other, develop interest in reciprocity, and build skills for team working and leadership. Students participating in learning music and dance demonstrated high motivation, This essay makes a conclusion that the NCLB Act has provided a much needed focus on the children who require support to achieve minimum standards in their educational experience, but there are some unintended consequences which arise when core competencies such as math and English are emphasized at the expense of arts subjects. Bogdan states, â€Å"Massive arts funding slashes in my own country were recently made by a federal government that believes support for the arts be left to the marketplace†. These recent developments in American education are currently causing students to lose out on opportunities of obtaining the kind of all-round education that is suitable and necessary for 21st Century life.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Studies Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Essay Example for Free

Studies Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Essay Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has long been considered a disorder which principally affects men in our society; consideration of the occurrence of heart attacks in females, for example, has been largely an afterthought. In the past few years, however, it has become increasingly obvious that this is not a problem limited to males, but that it occurs with great frequency in women. We now know that CVD is the cause of death more than any condition in women over the age of 50, including cancer (1) and in fact is responsible for more than a third of all deaths in women (2). It is estimated that 370,000 women in the United States die from heart disease each year. However, our knowledge base regarding CVD in African American (AA) women has not kept pace with the accumulation of data on white females. Thus, there is a deficit of information about this subgroup and the prevalence of CVD despite the fact that black women have more risk factors for CVD than do white women (3). The purpose of this paper is to review the subject of CVD in African American women and to focus upon four principal CVD categories: Coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, stroke, and congestive heart failure (CHF).The impact of gender and race on each of these entities will be examined in comparison to white women, and a determination will be made as to whether a different approach to the management of these disorders should be made based on ethnicity and sex. Coronary Artery Disease It has long been held that men have much more of a problem with CAD than women do; the belief has been that men are more susceptible to the disease, whereas women enjoy the benefits of hormonal protection. Gender differences in the occurrence of heart attacks have been noted, especially in the younger years of adult life. However, as each decade passes, the gap between prevalence rates for males and females progressively narrows to the point where there is essentially no difference by the seventh and eighth decades (4). Thus, although heart attack rates in women lag behind that for men by approximately ten years in the early years of adult life, equivalency is achieved later. Clinical features of CAD have also been shown to differ  substantially between men and women. The Framingham Study (5) demonstrated that CAD presented much more frequently as myocardial infarction in men than in women (49 vs. 29 percent), but women developed angina pectoris more frequently than men (47 vs. 26 percent). Risk factors for CAD such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, family history, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle have about the same incidence in men and women. However, the effect that certain risk factors have is more adverse in women. For instance, the risk of developing CAD is much greater in diabetic women. Another risk factor with substantially greater impact on females is hypertriglyceridemia (6). African American women are especially affected by CAD in a negative manner. They have a higher mortality and morbidity than African American men and white women under the age of 55. In the age group 25-44, African American women have 2.5 times the coronary heart disease mortality risk of white women. The mortality rate from CAD for black women is about 69 percent higher than that for white women (7). Overall, in 1995, the CAD death rate for African American males was 133.1 per 1000 compared to 124.4 per 1000 for white males, or 7 percent higher for black males. Comparative rates for black and white women were 81.6 and 60.3 per 1000, respectively, indicating a 35 percent higher mortality rate for black women over white women. A study at West Virginia University stated that, compared to the overall national death rate from CVD in women of 401 per 100,000, the rate for black women in New York City was the highest among all major racial groups at 587 per 100,000. Rates for white and Hispanic women were 559 and 320 per 100,000, respectively. Mississippi had the h ighest black female CVD death rate in the nation at 686 per 100,000. The heart attack event rate is more than twice as high for black women than for white women in the age group 65-74 years (8), indicating that the impact of having a higher number of risk factors over time is more deleterious in black women. Despite a lower coronary artery disease prevalence in black women based on angiographic studies, mortality rates are higher in this group than in white women. This inverse relationship between angiographic evidence of CAD and CAD mortality represents what may be termed the paradox of CAD in African American women (9). Post-infarction mortality is also higher than that for black men and white men and women (10). It should be emphasized that first myocardial infarction occurs at an earlier age with an  earlier death in African American women. Certain risk factors are indeed more frequently seen in African American as compared to white women. There is a significantly higher incidence of hypertension and stroke in black women with myocardial infarct ion (11), and other risk factors which occur more frequently in this group include physical inactivity, higher mean body mass index (BMI) (12), and greater consumption of cholesterol and saturated fat (13). Cigarette smoking and obesity represent risks which have been documented to increase cardiovascular disease in black women. Smoking negates the advantage against CAD induced by estrogen in pre-menopausal women (14). Diabetes mellitus is of particular concern in black women as a risk factor; the death rate among diabetic blacks is 2.5 times higher than in diabetic whites (15), and black women have a higher prevalence of this disease. Diabetes completely eliminates the pre-menopausal protection that women have against CAD, and this would appear to be more of a problem for African American women. Access to preventive medical attention for CAD has been noted to be deficient for African American women. A classic example is the study performed by Schulman et al (16). Eight actors were used, of whom 4 were black, 4 were white, 4 were male, 4 were female, and the age range was from younger to older. All had videotaped interviews which were presented to more than 700 predominately white male primary care physicians attending a medical conference. The doctors were asked which patients they would be likely to refer for cardiac catheterization, based on a suggestive CAD profile which all of the patients possessed. Univariate analysis of the physicians’ responses revealed that both men (90.6 percent) and whites (90.6 percent) were more likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization than women (84.7 percent) and blacks (84.7 percent). A race-gender analysis also showed that black women in particular were referred for this diagnostic procedure 40 percent less often than white men. This study has been interpreted as demonstrating racial and gender bias against African American women by white male physicians regarding referral for a critical cardiovascular procedure designed to detect CAD. The use of hormone or estrogen replacement therapy (HRT or ERT) has been investigated intensively in the past several years regarding their possible reduction of CVD risk in post-menopausal women. Several clinical trials including PEPI, ERA, and HERS have been performed, producing results which do not show a clear CAD  mortality benefit derived from hormone use in post-menopausal women with CAD. There is still a possibility that they may be advantageous for primary prevention, and the ongoing Women’s Health Initiative should provide useful information when it is concluded. There is no indication that black women respond differently than white women to HRT/ERT regarding the impact on CVD risk. Hypertension Pre-menopausal women who are hypertensive have a CAD mortality risk which is ten times greater than normal (17). In the United States there are more hypertensive women than there are men with high blood pressure (18), and the prevalence of hypertension is greater among African American women than among white women. Specifically, the prevalence of hypertension in blacks twenty years of age or older is in excess of that for the population of the nation as a whole. The percentages are 35 for black males and 34.2 for black females, compared to 24.4 for white males and 19.3 for white females (19). Hypertension is the most important risk factor for stroke and is easily the most modifiable one. In addition, it is the largest contributor to CVD morbidity and mortality in blacks. Comparative death rates for hypertension per 100,000 population are 29.6 for black males (355 percent higher than for white males), and 21.7 for black females (352 percent higher than for white females). The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) also found that blacks have a higher prevalence of severe or stage III hypertension compared to non-blacks (20). Several differences in the pathogenesis of hypertension have been documented to exist between blacks and whites (21). African Americans are characterized by low-renin hypertension accompanied by salt sensitivity, e.g., poor toleration of salt-loading, and greater volume expansion as a consequence. These characteristics tend to make blacks less responsive to drugs which impact on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers in the treatment of hypertension, and relatively more responsive to medications which decrease plasma volume, such as diuretics. Their salt sensitivity also renders them more susceptible to the hypertensive effects of a high-salt diet. It is estimated that over 70 percent of African Americans have low-renin h ypertension as compared to about half of whites. Although more  than 90 percent of blacks have essential, or primary, hypertension, the discovery of a high renin level in a black patient, for instance, an elderly African American female, is so unusual that it strongly suggests a secondary cause for the blood pressure elevation. Black patients also tend to be more responsive to dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) and alpha-1 blockers. However, there are some mitigating factors. For instance, although ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers may not be as effective as other drugs when used as monotherapy in blacks, they do have an antihypertensive result similar to that seen in whites when these drugs are administered in combination with diuretics. In addition, many black patients who do not respond to monotherapy treatment with these drugs used in conventional doses may respond to higher doses, although there is a risk of more side-effects. ACE inhibitors are also indicated in the treatment of congestive heart failure and for the deadly combination of hypertension and diabetes, especially if proteinuria is present. Other pathophysiological characteristics which are different between hypertensive blacks and whites are altered vascular reactivity, increased sodium retention, increased potassium excretion, and decreased kallikrein excretion seen in blacks, as well as more nephrosclerosis. Decreases in vasodilatory substances in blacks such as kinins, prostaglandins, and dopamine are also seen. Black hypertensives have also been noted to have increased intracellular sodium and calcium concentration, decreased membrane sodium transport, and decreased red-cell sodium-potassium transport activity. These changes are believed to render the African American patient more prone to vascular, renal and circulatory alterations which result in elevated blood pressure. Complications of hypertension have an earlier age of onset and a later age of detection in blacks than in their white counterparts. The principal complications are CAD, stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, end-stage renal disease, and congestive heart failure. Because of these facts, it is important to treat hypertension in blacks more aggressively, e.g., early, thoroughly, and with multiple drugs as necessary. In addition, non-pharmacological measures such as diet, attention to obesity, increased physical exercise, and avoidance of excess alcohol intake are essential components of a well-rounded therapeutic approach to the black hypertensive. Stroke Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States after coronary heart disease and cancer. There are about 500,000 strokes each year of which 150,000 are fatal. Stroke is also a major cause of physical impairment and the cost of acute and chronic care exceeds $30 billion a year in this country. A so-called â€Å"stroke belt† exists in the Southeastern part of the country, where almost 60 percent of the African American population resides (22). Although stroke is generally thought of as a disorder primarily affecting the elderly, it should be recognized that 28 percent of the victims are under age 65. African Americans have a stroke mortality which is twice that of whites (23). Age-adjusted stroke mortality rates are 76 percent higher among African American than among white men, and 54 percent higher among African American than white women (24). Although the rate of decline for stroke mortality has increased since the 1970s, there has been a recent slowdown in thi s decline. This has been especially true for African Americans, in whom stroke mortality is actually increasing. Since it is very difficult to treat stroke once the process is initiated, much of the focus has been on primary prevention. Hypertension is the most powerful predictor of stroke and is found to be a factor in 70 percent of cases (25). Control of hypertension therefore represents the best strategy to prevent stroke, and in fact a meta-analysis showed that when all studies of the association between treatment to lower blood pressure and stroke were reviewed, there was a 42 percent reduction in the incidence of stroke and a 45 percent reduction in fatal stroke when the diastolic blood pressure was reduced by 5-6 mmHg (26). In addition, the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP) demonstrated that a 36 percent decrease in stroke risk resulted from mean blood pressure reduction of 11/3.4 mmHg. This benefit was seen in all ages, races, and genders. These data and other information support the need for vigorous drug therapy of hypertension for the primary prevention of stroke. This is especially important for African American patients, particularly women. Congestive Heart Failure Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the only cardiovascular disease whose incidence is increasing. There are great differences between blacks and whites in the etiology of CHF. Hypertension is the principal precursor of  CHF in African Americans, whereas ischemic heart disease more commonly precedes CHF in whites. Mortality due to heart failure is about 2.5 times higher in blacks than in whites less than 65 years of age. Additionally, in 1990 the age-adjusted death rate for CHF among patients older than 65 years of age was 143.9 for black men compared with 117.8 for white men, and 113.4 for black women compared with 97.5 for white women (27). In a study of racial differences in heart failure, Afzal et al (28) prospectively analyzed 163 consecutive patients admitted to Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan with a diagnosis of CHF. They found that compared with whites, blacks were younger in age (mean age 63.8 vs. 70.8, p=0.0003), and had a higher prevalence of hypertension (86 vs. 66 percent, p=0.0004), left ventricular hypertrophy (24 vs. 8 percent, p=0.02), ejection fraction

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The History Of Hard Rock Cafe Tourism Essay

The History Of Hard Rock Cafe Tourism Essay The history of Hard Rock Cafe headquartered in Orlando, Florida began from July 14, 1971 by the appearance of a modest cafe in London, England. Hard Rock Cafes founders are Isaac Tigrett and Peter Morton, two enterprising and music-loving Americans. And, 1982 is the time for HRs expansion when 2 owners decided to develop their own HRC in many different places. After some transitions and acquisitions, HR International now belongs to the Seminole Tribe of Florida with over 171 venues in more than 52 countries around the world, including 134 cafes and 15 Hotels/Casinos, live music venues, and a huge annual Rockfest concert. Differing from other corporations, HRCs awareness of the brand appeared at start-up and throughout the development process. Hard Rock Cafe model is typical of the method of construction products by topic a brand new marketing tool. Hard Rock Cafe is a mixture of experience, style, entertainment factor, sharing awareness and ultimately memories storage. This is the key factor leading HRCs present success. With rock n roll sensibility A HR birthright- demonstrated by USD million valued collections of memorabilia, service philosophy Love All Serve All and operations under the banner Save The Planet, Hard Rock Cafe the core of HR International entertainment and leisure company- will definitely continue to successfully expand the Hard Rock Brand. Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) and Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) are considered exotic and far-flung locales of HR system. In 2011, Hanoi (Vietnam) is one of eight venues of HRC coming into being. I. THE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT STRATEGY OF HRC From a modest cafe in London, HRC now occupies over 171 locations in 52 countries. This success has been achieved by changing from a themed restaurant into one participating in what is now called the Experience Economy. Working in service industry, HRCs products are services and they are intangible. OM always plays an important part in service area. HRC understands this and uses OM effectively to get access to their target serve guests with unique experiences at each as well as every cafe. This is found through its mission of To spread the spirit of Rock n Roll by delivering an exceptional entertainment and dining experience. We are committed to being an important, contributing member of our community and offering the Hard Rock family a fun, healthy, and nurturing work environment while ensuring our long-term success. In service industry, strategy is basically OM strategy.HRC uses Multi-Domestic strategy when using its (US) domestic model globally, and using franchising operations when it makes sense to do so. (Half company, half franchise). This may includes using the use of joint ventures or subsidiaries. Franchises are used when it is decided that local ownership will bring a unique capability, or local conditions suggest there will be an unusual or difficult implementation. In order to access the competitive advantage (Strategic Differentiation, Low Cost, and Response). Although HRC has no normal competitors, a lot of its rivals are from experience that tourists can experience. HRC selectively applies 10 OM decisions, contributing to remarkable achievements. This results in 92% name recognistion all over the world, putting HR in the top 10 of all restaurants. 1. Product and Service Design With the philosophy Love all serve all, HRC provide guests with experience, not meals simply. Here, the chefs modify menu from classic American burger chicken wings- to include higher-end items (stuffed veal chops, lobster tails). They also analyse and test the meals as well as review the menus to make sure the food is well qualified and delicious enough to serve their guests. Because HRC orients to differentiation for making competitive advantage, the menus as well as food is usually changed. Also, HR is adding a new emphasis on live music redesigning its restaurants to accommodate the changing tastes. 2. Quality Differing from product, services quality is affected by many subjective standards. It is not easy to set up a general level of quality. This requires a serious effort to get a success. With a chain of over 171 locations in 52 countries, HRC has nowadays retained many brands. HRC realises the importance of total quality; therefore, each staff or each meal is strongly focused. The staff must be well qualified. They also make research on food, taste or suppliers. Many surveys about quality have been regularly done based on the feedback or comment sheet from guests. They aim at the most perfect quality by using the scorecard of a one to seven scale. If the scores are not a seven, this means a failure. They are happy to receive the comments from guests, even the complaints by which they can improve the services. That is the reason of the slogan Were going to reap the benefits of the efforts that we put into it, so in the end, the love you take is equal to the love you make. 3. Process and capacity design: Because Customer may be directly involved in process design and Capacity must match demand (service with 10 OM decisions Heizer Render), HRC puts guests at the heart of operations and staffs always try their best to satisfy guests. Scheduling the large staff of bartenders, cooks and waiters, waiteresses is done based off of tracking sales. The schedule can be modified for being suitable with job character, seasonality and guestsconvenience for the purpose of efficiency. Everyday, HRC serves about 100,000 meals with appetizers, salad, sandwich, sides, burger, entries and desserts. 4. Location selection: In service industry, location must be near customers. That is why HRC chooses the best venue at the center of each city to locate. Location is a key factor in service business. It is the prerequisite condition making or breaking business strategy. At HRC, location is considered one of the most essential OM decisions done by Oliver Munday HRs vice President for cafe development. Before opening a new HRC, Mr. Oliver Munday travels a world to pick up a country for HRs next cafe, select a city, and find the ideal site and then negotiates the deal. After that, he works with architects and planners and stays with the project through the opening and first years sales. Usually, Mr. Oliver Munday looks at several factors with a global view when considering a location. Some of them are: political risk, currency risk, social norms, brand fit, social costs, business practices. And, an extensive research checklist is applied. They pay attention and make a trend analysis of Demographics, Visitor Market,Transportation, Restaurants and Nightclubs ( a selection in key target market areas), Political Risk, Real Estate Market and Hard Rock Cafe Comparable Market Analysis. Depending on the result, HRC will finalise the business model, joint-ventures, subsidiaries or franchise on the way to set up a unique base. With 75% guests are tourists, most of HRC are located in central areas having congregated nightlife. The location decision is at least a 10-15 year commitment. Also, Break-Even Analysis is used to help decide whether to build the purchased land, or to remodel an existing facility. Currently, Munday is heavily looking into global expansion in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. As estimated, there are 8 HRC that are coming into being in 2011, including Hanoi, Vietnam, helping to increase the total revenues to nearly 180. 5. Layout design: In service industry, layout is another important element, contributing to improving product production. After locating, depending on reality, HRC will decide the layout design. Sometimes, they purchase the land to the venue. Sometimes, they just remodel on the base of rent land. HRC takes a great deal of time for this work from exterior to interior. The outline must be attractive while decoration is at the aim of drawing the attention of guests. The bar, furniture, lighting system, sound and circulation are at the guests comfort. Meanwhile, the working station as well as kitchen, food area makes staff easy to operate and serve guests at soonest. Moreover, retail shop together with memorabilia creates a deep impression by a unique way that can not be found anywhere else. All of them bring the guests a special atmosphere of living in RocknRoll world. 6. Human resources and job design: Being aware of the role of human resource which is critical in service, especially in experience economy, HRC is always careful of recruitment as well as training. Applicants to HRC have to meet the criteria of appearance, positiveness in attitude, high self-motivation and interest in serving and sharing experience. In addition, they are required to be skilled at work and passionate about music as well. Being a staff here, everybody passes Rock 101 a 2-day training course for basic service skills and with a rocknroll spirit. Job-oriented interactive CDs covering kitchen, retail front-of-the-house service is the content of HRCs training programme. HRC tends to the strategy building a culture allowing for acceptance of substantial diversity and individuality, there is no discrimination at HRC. The promotion and employee policy are also strongly focused and equal to all staffs. With value system to bring a fun, healthy, nuturing environment into the HRC culture, the staff is the eleme nt conveying the rocknroll soul, making atmosphere alive and bringing exceptional experience to the guests. That is the reason why HRC is said to have the competitive advantade through its human resources. Besides those decisions above, HRC also pay attention to supply-chain, Inventory, scheduling and maintenance management. In order to have food served with freshness and high quality, HRC chooses the qualified suppliers and regularly work with them. At HRC, they set a schedule relying on business sales, revenue, events, seasonality, sales forecast and business trend analysisto make sure they are always at service. The most important inventory management is for memorabilia collections valueing over US$ 40 million with more than sixty thousand pieces decorated at all HRC. No matter what the large number of memorabilia, HRC effectively manage from a distance. They know well the name of every memorabilia, how many of them at each HRC and where to put. The maintenance of memorabilia is done at Orlando every 5-7 years; hence, their valuable and largest RocknRoll collection is in good condition all the time. In addition to OM decisions applied, HRC global strategy can be successful thanks to good forecasting. Hard Rock doesnt limit its use of forecasting tools to sales. Depending on the application, Hard Rock makes long-range, intermediate-term or short-term sales forecasts conducted each month, by cafe, and then aggregated for a headquarters view. The daily forecast is further broken into hourly sales. The point-of-sale system (POS) is at the centre of the sales forecasting system. Computerized scheduling software is used and then they compare the actual sales to forecast to calculate the variances, find out the reason for improving. A 3-year weighted moving average is applied to cafe sales, multiple regression is found in Hard Rocks menu planningà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Effective forecasting helps HRC be at good service, contributing to its successful Operations Management. In brief, selective application of 10 OM decisions with forecasting brings HRC with a competitive advantage, differentiating HRC from other cafes. This puts HRC firmly in the service industry, especially in experience economy which is so attractive but with a variety of difficulties and challenges as well. II. THE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENTS CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HARD ROCK WHEN CONSIDERING AN EXPANSION OF ITS BUSINESS INTO HANOI Continuing with the success in expansion, HRC first appeared in Vietnam in 2009 by franchise done by Viet Thai International. That is HRC located in Kumho Plaza, right at the heart of Saigon, the biggest and crowded city of Vietnam. After over one year of operation in Saigon, Vietnam HRC step by step gained some success with remaining musical sensibility demonstrated through RocknRoll and valuable memorabilia collection. At the moment, there are a variety of bars, restaurants, cafes and even hotels in this city; nevertheless, HRC is still considered highlight. Of course, the subjects of HRC is not massive, but selective. Their guests are basically hi-end, rich, sophisticated and with high musical taste or foreigners, tourists. They come to HRC not for a drink or a meal only but for a mixture of experience, style, entertainment factor, sharing awareness and ultimately memories storage.. On the way to development, one more HRC is being estimated to come into being in Hanoi capital of Vietnam. It is no doubt that HRC will face many challenges. Hanoi is the Vietnam second largest in population (6.5 million people) with imbalance between urban and rural, urban and suburban. Hanoians are not so -going, and open-minded as the southern people . They live traditionally and somewhat strict, conservative in accepting anything new or strange. This is the obstacle to HRC with experience way which seems still new to Vietnam. Besides, there are a lot of hotels, bar, restaurants, entertainment centers, shpping mallsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦, even modern venues invested by foreigners that are regarded as competitors of HRC in experience economy. The limit of Hanoi is at the lack of aiport. Until now, Noi Bai is the only one airport and very far from Hanois center (40 kilometres), the roads are not bad but not well synchronised yet, making some obstacles to transportation. A variety of restaurants, bar, nightclubs are existing and working in this city, which are competitors sharing the market in experience industry. The competition is more and mor e intense. About the Real Estate Market, it shows a bad fluctuation with unreasonably high price. Hanois land is grouped into highest market in the world, bringing the difficulty in investment. Also, the aftereffect of global crisis leading the decrease in hi-end people, including tourists with high affordability. According to official staticstic, in 2010, the number of hi-end tourists coming to VN downs around 15-20 %. Some foreign offices temporarily close or reduce staff. The local people tend to cut the bugdet for entertainment. Therefore, a luxury environment like HRC will be much damaged in quantity, to some extent. However, it is apparent to access many opportunity for HRC when deciding to expand into Hanoi. The first opportunity is the demographics. The population of Hanoi is big at 6.5 million, the number of people with high affordability are younger and younger. They will be easy at receiving the new features like an experience. A number of Hanoians seriously and like to take the form of a space so luxurious and unique can be a choice to express status, their level. Hanoi is the capital, the fix number of foreigners ling and working here is great. Many restaurants, hotels, bars, convention centersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦that are well qualified to serve a number of passengers. Embassies, foreign companies, NGOsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦are majorly located here. And the big number of tourists and businessmen come here. And, many events, MICE activities are firstly chosen to organised here. With 75% of HRC is tourists as statistic, Hanoi is at this advantage. Also, the economic indicators are not too bad, even during the economic downturn, promising a benefit for HRC when living standard is enhanced and mor e guests coming to this cafe. The next opportunity is created by the differentiation strategy. Although there are a big number of hotels, restaurants, bar, shopping malls or entertainmnet centers, nothing is prominent and highlighted. HRC with the unique features by chain tradition will actually attract customers. In addition, the transportation in Hanoi is more and more improved. Hanoi is the hub of northern region, the link of cities, provinces in North. Except from the lack of synchronisation in roads and a bigger airport with bigger capacity, the transportation system is relatively good. Noi Bai an international aiport with a history of 33 years and a capacity of 10 million passengers per year with many airlines (VNA, China Airline, Singapore Airlines, Jetstarà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) and direct flights to abroad. Hanoi also has famous river right at the middle of city and a railway station that is not far from the center. These are conveniences! Hanoi also brings HRC another opportunity of safety. Vietnam is considered one of 10 safe destinations. Everyone can be sure about the political risk in our country. A stable and unified political regime together with a high security can definitely bring the bright prospective of business. Hanoi with high living standard, a great number of local people are able to highly afford, having high requirements in musical taste and quality. Here is the cradle of rock with a large number of fans. As a result, HRC with RocknRoll sensibility can fully meet their needs and favourite. Moreover, HRC first came to Vietnam by Franchised done by Viet Thai International in 2009. Viet Thai International is a successful corporation in Highlands cafe chain. It is evident that HRC can continue experience in doing operations in cafe in particular and in experience industry in general. HRC has been having strong brand and reputation. In brief, with a lot of opportunities analysed above, it is clear that HRC makes a decision of expansion to Hanoi is reasonable. And, it is no doubt that HRC will continue their success if they remain faithful to systems spirit The RocknRoll sensibility so that guests come here not for just a meal or a drink, but a mixture of experience, style, entertainment factor, sharing awareness and ultimately memories storage. This is the feeling that can not be found anywhere except HRC chain, until now. => Choose central district (Hoan Kiem) at Vincom Plaza

Mini Bran Re positioning Analysis

Mini Bran Re positioning Analysis According to the book Strategic brand management by Kevin Lane Keller (2008) , Identifying and creating brand positioning is the first and important stage of the strategic brand management process. Positioning effects on a founding benchmark and works toward building a strong brand by helping marketers to design, to implement, to solidify or to sustain brand associations. Aaker ( ) also supports the idea that the brand position can offer clear direction to a communication program implementation. To establish the position of a brand, the concept of it should be clearly defined. Criticism of the literature reveals numerous meanings and clarification of positioning. Sekhar, (1989) states that the concept of positioning developed from research on market segmentation and targeting. Kotler (2003, p. 308) defines brand positioning as the act of designing the companys offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market. The end result of positioning is the succe ssful creation of a customer-focused value proposition, a cogent reason why the target market should buy the product. Arnott (1992, 1993) parallels the idea by stating that positioning is, correlated to the rivalry, management attempt to adjust the tangible features and the intangible views of a marketable contribution. Furthermore, Kapferer, (2004, p. 99) emphasises on the distinctive characteristics that make a band different from its competitors and alluring to the public. In addition, Sengupta (2005 ) enhances the term of perception that indicate the core of the brand in terms of its functional and emotional benefit in the decision of customer. Also, it is shown as points in perceptual space and think up a product class. In essence, Keller outlines the idea behind the concept of brand positioning that involves four aspects; target market identification, the nature of competitors, the ideal of points of parity, and the points of difference. Identifying target market is crucial part in establish a robust positioning because dissimilar segment may have diverse brand knowledge structure or perceive the same brand in different way vary by own attitudes, beliefs, and experience. The target customer can be classified as descriptive (customer-oriented), which associated to the kind of customer or behavioral (product-oriented), which related to how customers consider of or utilizes the brand or product. The behavioral side is more significant to comprehend brand position due to stronger strategic implication. Decided type of target can, then, implicitly sketches the nature of rivalry because businesses usually target that same segment in terms of category membership. Once the appropriate competitive frame of reference for positioning has been formed, the correct points of parity (POPs) and points of difference (PODs) are able to make. Point of parity (POPs) are characteristics or benefits that may mutual with other brands separated into two forms: category and competitive. Category point of parity is a standard association expected by customers to show the credibility of companies. Competitive Point of parity are associations designed to abolish rivalry Point of difference. It is used when firms want to break even the area that competitors are attempting to seek an advantage and achieve advantages in some other areas. To illustrate, to enter in the fast food industry, there are key elements that help customers to label a brand as a fast food restaurant such as quick service, good taste, and low prices. These are fundamental features and benefits of product category that it belongs to. Point of difference, on the other hand, comprises of strong, favorable and unique associations for a br and based on attribute or benefit association in the mind of customer. It is associations that customers believe that they couldnt find in the competitive brand. It is considered by functional basis, performance-related consideration and imagery related criterion, which are competitive strengths and insight about consumers motivations. Reeves and Ted Bates advertising agency (1950) also support the common concept of PODs in terms of unique selling proposition (USP) that promoting use to compel customers to buy product that competitors could not race. For instance, fast-food chain Subway uses the healthier benefit as PODs compared with other quick-serve restaurants that supported by less fat attribute. Nike, for another example, claim of superior performance in athletic shoes. Nowadays, business environment is becoming more intensively competitive. Marketers must certify that their brands constantly amend to stay s, at the same time as keeping on the true core values (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1999). There are many reasons that make a firm to reconsider about its brand position which could be environmentally driven, Consumer driven, Competitor driven, and company driven. The environmentally driven can cause by economic issue, political issue, or the green movement. Consumer driven is able to be the change of consumer needs and lifestyles or the attractiveness of alternative target markets . Moreover, the driven from internal of company usually be a change in company strategy or gaining of new technology or other asset that provides the brand a competitive advantage and valuable differentiator. Finally, the essential reason that affects a brand to reposition is the competitor movement. Markets are shredded and full with proposition that rivals try to display the ir point of different and superior positioning. Then, the brand may be faced by a new stronger positioning. Often, competitive advantages survive for only a short period before competitors attempt to match them, which may harm the brand positioning in terms of building satisfactory distinction benefits over their contenders (Clancy and Trout, 2002). Thus, brand should react by using repositioning strategy to change and stay contemporary and fresh in the eyes of customers. Trout and Ries () propose an idea of the repositioning that involve with competition, change, and crisis issues. Firstly, repositioning can compete the rival by discriminate the brand or product and add value to it. Secondly, since time pass by, brand should update itself and make connection to target customer by using technology and communication and multimedia assets. Finally, repositioning can cure the crisis especially the cost issue. Ryan et al ()also gives the meaning of repositioning that is the way to re-ad apt brand position the consumers thought to change the way in which a firms product or service is apprehend. Basically, positioning and repositioning are the same; they are both process of getting ownership of a place in the thoughts of the target market that is proper, differentiating and fascinating. These two activities are , likewise, bases on the Customer Based Brand Equity (CBBE) Model settled by Keller in 1993 which defined as the different effect that consumer knowledge has on the customers response to marketing activity. To clarify, this paper will show the illustration of two repositioned brand of the automobile industry in both successful and fail way. Begin with brand that succeed in repositioning that is MINI, The MINI (original named Mini) is one of the most well known brands in the car industry, and indeed the most prosperous British car in terms of volume sold (Birmingham Mini Owners Club, 2002). It was launched in 1959 by British Motor Corporation. It was originally designed for four people seat, in a small size, practical, easy to park and economical. Also, priced was inexpensively. This responded to a fuel shortage, and the need for more efficient city cars. The Mini Cooper was designed and commercialized as a faster and sporty version of the Mini that would allow the car to compete successfully in rallying. Moreover, in 1969 the Mini was placed on the film The Italian Job. Due to the combination of the Minis rallying success and celebrity style reputation so it became a necessary fashion accessory. It gained the cultural status that considered as a British icon. The Mini Coopers status was variable between the 1970s and the 1980s as the license for the brand was sold to Spanish and Italian companies. In 1994, BMW bought the Rover Group, the owner of the Mini and launched the line in 2000. BMW still used the Mini brand to unite old and new to form explicit and consistence profile, but a bit change in name from Mini to MINI. Launching the New MINI had task to preserve the MINI from becoming a fad. Therefore, business strategy of BMW is to position the MINI as a symbol. It target young groups of customers that are urbane, stylish, individualistic or characteristically take their own path, value and quality consider, love to drive, and a trendsetter. To meet the target market need, characteristic, and lifestyle, Mini brand came out the repositioning strategy that tried to attract customer in both logical level by the products performance and insurance of quality, and at a sensational level by the value of the brands image or product aesthetics. At the rational level, MINI keeps the perception of a small premium car. It emphasized in practical and brand heritage about being an economy small sport car that have a different and new technical base. There are three main competitive advantages that support the aspect; custom design, modern quality technology, and outstanding safety. Firstly, MINI has an extensiv e variety of equipment along with paintwork choices, applications on the external and rare materials for the internal that make MINI customizable and can be differentiate. As a result, it offers customers to choose their own style MINI to express and show their own brand personality. Secondly, the quality dimension, it involves; body structure setting new standards, the powerful engines, the most progressive suspension technology, which makes driver feel a go-kart experience. Thirdly, the safety system guarantee excellent safety airbag system, which makes the MINI one of the safest and the most reliable cars in its category. At an emotional level, the MINI stressed on the fun facet, play with the slogan fun to drive. Thus, MINI attempted to create brand personality of it as fun loving, outrageous, cheeky, trendy, sporting and attractive. The victory of the MINI brand repositioning can be analyzed in many aspects. Firstly it achieved in clearly defined its target market so it could offer the brand attributes or benefits that meet the target needs and, also, was able to compete with the relevant brands in the sporty compact cars market such as Honda and Volkswagen. Likewise, MINI did not forget to offer the Category points-of-parity; it provided essential and credible attributes that a car should have to customers. Additionally, MINI can prove strong superiority on its attribute and benefit and, too, consumers can be swayed. MINI brand associations met three criteria that can correctly be good at a point-of-difference; desirability, deliverability, and differentiability. First of all, the MINIs target customer was given a persuasive motive to believe by MINIs pose on exclusive design, up-to-date quality technology, excellent safety, plus fun emotion. Accordingly, they can feel the relevance in both performance and emot ion. These advantage associations are hard to compete. Also, MINI got benefit from the combination of two legacy advantages; British heritage and BMWs German heritage that effected to customer perception. The former British heritage included construction in England, iconic scheme, fun and sporty sensation. The later German heritage BMWs consisted of the certifying in excellence of production and technology along with the premium car segment. Moreover, the company can really deliver favor attributes and benefits, in the other words, MINI could sent the promise unique joy at an attainable price to its consumers. The product design and its marketing campaign supported the desired associations. Their unique, specific and complete forms of advertising resulted to minis repositioning accomplishment. The customer was underlined that possessing and driving a MINI is fun, at the same time, also promoting brand personality and the idea of smaller is better. In every touch points, from the bil lboards to the showrooms, everything is branded that pararell with the set position. Finally, associations of MINI brand are strong in differentiate about history related, product related, and emotional related that can claim distinctiveness and superiority against relevant competitors. Whilst MINI brand repositioning has been very successful, Oldsmobile brand, contrastingly, had left customers confused. The Oldsmobile brand is a case of the failure brand in repositioning. Oldsmobile is one of the brand legends in US car history. It was in the portfolio of General Motors (GM) same as Chevrolet, Pontiac, Buick and Cadillac. It was a pioneer brand that launched the first car with chromeplated Trim and front wheel drive. Also, it was be the first production line car in the US with a fully automatic transmission, which is Toronado model. The brand was popular for many decades until there were problems that shake the strength of brand and have to end the production in 2000. The reason behind the brand failure can be divided in terms of positioning in three parts. First of all, around 1980s onwards, when GMs technology had cutting edge begin with the Chevrolet engines were substituted ad diesel engines were given as an option, it ,afterward, stopped maintaining and emphasizing the unique selling proposition of Oldsmobile and make the brand to be uniform like others. Consequently, Oldsmobiles is devalued its positioning in advance automobile in sportiness and innovation .It lost its advantage edge and looked very similar to other GM cars, with only small differences. Additionally, due to its brand name, there is an effect of the name old to the perception of customer that mislead to be perceived as outdates brand specially among teenage segment. As a result, marketers of Oldsmobile tried to reposition the brand and adjust the brand image with Its Not Your Fathers Oldsmobile slogan and ran advertising to describing the point. Unfortunately, this customers couldnt recognize reasonable about age association and still perceive that Oldsmobile is old-fashioned (Levinson,2005). One Brand Week article, published in February 2001 gave a recommendation to the Oldsmobile that instead of attempt to be younger, it should better accept the exist brand, with its older profile, search for older customers insight and give them a communication that fascinated to their needs. It could be possible, as the Oldsmobile had been considered an innovator in its field, even though it had never been a youth brand. Also, the process of this repositioning was rather impulsiv e operation. The customer perception should proceeding adjust for example, from old brand to adult brand to, eventually, younger brand. Moreover, Oldsmobile had endeavoured to lift its position to be a luxury brand by changing logo and make many product variations to enter European market. However, the principal notion of Oldsmobile was to manufacture a low-priced car for the masses and discounting strategy to sales was still used that against the repositioning aim, thus, consumers were confounded. Again, their memories with the earlier brand image still ran deep. Ultimately, General Mortors shut down its Oldsmobile section. Refer to the case, there are many factors that make Oldsmobile incapable to success in repositioning. Begins with the target market, it attempted to target younger consumers and affluent market without finding those customers insight. While there were overwhelm of competitors that pierced in the same target. Thus, introducing trendy new Olds cars were too late. Oldsmobile did not carry on the brands new promise; it just created the tag line Its Not Your Fathers Oldsmobile but did not do anything on product or service programs to stress the claim. The product reforms did not meet wishes of new clients. By reason of deficient product development plus inconsistent brand communications, it did not have power enough to change the targets perception that Oldsmobile is a youthful, modern brand. Sharfman(2001) states that this slogan excluded both newer and elder purchasers. The reason that might be it had not done enough through its designs, contemporary images, and marketing mix, especiall y to the customers who do not have high involvement in the brand. They saw no advantage and no distinction, and no emotive association. In addition, it abandoned their competitive advantages which are a sporty and innovative, based on its heritage. Consequently, the trusted and believable personality of Oldsmobile was destroyed. In addition, to be in the upper market, Oldsmobile did not do well on credibility. Price levels did not represent the new willing position. Also, it was not able to form a unique emotional advantage or identity component of brand equity that is related to its customers. For these reasons Oldsmobile turned people off. In a nut shell, brand positioning is a strategic concept that marketers make a band image to sit in a unique room in the mind of the target market by a customer-focused base value correlated to competitors. Furthermore,There are factors require brand managers to reconsider about their brand position such as altering customer needs, increasing competitive pressures and changing of the company own structure. The BMW MINI case shows an example of how a brand cans success in repositioning. It created effective brand associations that consumers perceive a brand dwell in a favourable, differentiated and credible location in the minds of consumers. Thus, MINI gained trustworthiness of the product position by information given by brand. Although many brands are desired to become resurrected and famous again, often, repositioning brand fail in changing the image in the mind of customer as the mentioned case of Oldsmobile. It underwent from a lack of strong positioning since targeted goal that it did not have ability to send the promises or new benefits. Also, elements of marketing mix did not go along with new position such as the product improvement and the price. As a result, marketers should carefully redefine brands target market, stick on their needs and expectations, then, find the right and available place to be in their minds, which unique, certifiable, and satisfactory. Finally, the new position should be communicated properly and consistency.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

William Wallace :: essays research papers

Patriot, Thief, Guardian, Traitor: William Wallace has been many things to many people. However, since Mel Gibson's 1995 film, 'Braveheart', to most he is a freedom fighter and icon of Scottish independence. Little contemporary record remains, and what information we do have comes, in the main, from biographers like Blind Harry, written over two hundred years later with their own agenda. What is known about Wallace's early years is that, unlike the other potential leaders of the Scots at the time, he was of undistinguished birth. Whilst not the peasant or 'man of the people' of legend, Wallace was a mere knight and nowhere near the aristocratic league of Robert the Bruce, for example. His opinion of the English was hardly improved when, in 1291, his father was killed in a skirmish with English troops. With Edward I's assumption of feudal lordship over Scotland and the subsequent humiliation of John of Gaunt, the rightful king, the political scene was primed for rebellion. Edward, through his treasurer, Hugh Cressingham, squeezed taxation from the Scots and popular support was on the side of the rebels. Wallace's first act of note was a strike against the imposed English authorities, when he killed William Heselrig, the English Sheriff of Lanark. Gathering men around him as his rebellion gathered momentum, Wallace's greatest victory came at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. This 1297 rout of the larger English force brought Wallace to national prominence. However, the Scots fought under the command of Andrew Murray, rather than the unproven Wallace. Murray's death in the battle left all the credit to Wallace. The battle of Falkirk, the next year, saw Wallace in sole control of the Scottish forces and tactics. His use of 'schiltrons', or dense formations of troops, failed to repel the English cavalry and the Scots were defeated, taking heavy losses. This defeat forced Wallace to resign the Guardianship of Scotland that he had been awarded after Stirling Bridge. As the rebellion continued, the Scottish nobility decided in increasing numbers to look for a compromise with Edward. Failure to obtain an alliance with France against the English led Robert the Bruce to reconcile with the English king, in 1302. Wallace's refusal to brook any compromise or accomodation with the English began to look increasingly isolated and exposed. Edward declared Wallace to be an outlaw and traitor. Legally, he could now be killed without guilt, and harbouring him was also an act of treason.